401006 Bioscience


The following outlines the unit’s learning outcomes.

1.Describe the process that leads to health issues and alterations in activities kveig over the life expectancy.

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2.Outline the consequences of health collapse for professional nurses practice.

3. Discuss the physiological changes occurring in the body’s functions in response to Mary and diseases, as well as the aging process.

4 Discuss the role and importance of relevant pharmacological intervention in health breakdown.

5. Discuss the role and importance of microorganisms within health and care facilities.

6. Explain the role played by the immune system in the maintenance and improvement of health.

7. Identify the consequences of immune systems breaking down for the child. The nurse’s role.

a Describe wound healing’s physiology.

8. Explain why Mary was given a booster of tetanus.

9. Describe how the three wound observations are physiologically based.

Discuss your response to this case study.

10. Describe Marls’ fever and the two benefits it has.

11. Identify one possible source of contamination to the wound by aureus.

12. Describe why Augment., was the right drug given to Mary.

Answer to Question: 401006 Bioscience

1.Rationale To Give Mary A Tetanus Booster

1.1 What’s the reason for tetanus in this case?

Mary was working in the garden when she suffered a deep cut. Her wound could have been contaminated with soil.

Clostridium titani, the bacterium that causes Tetanus, can exist in the soil as an endospore. This Gram-positive bacterium can live in tissues and can also infect other tissues.

Tetanus is caused when the bacterium releases two protein toxins. Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin while tetanolysin is a hemolysin. Tetanus is a painful condition that causes muscle spasms and even prove to be fatal (Immunise.health.gov.au, 2017).

1.2Accordingly with the guidelines in The Australian Immunisation Handbook (Dept.

Refer to the 2017 guidelines from the “The Australia Immunisation Handbook”) on administering a Tetanus booster.

The Australian Immunisation Handbook says that anyone 50 years or older should get a tetanus boost if they haven’t had one within the last 10 years.

Mary is 50 and should therefore receive the booster.

The booster is especially important for Mary because her injury was caused by gardening soil.

A booster in the past ten year has not been able prevent tetanus from patients with minor injuries.

Mary must receive one within a few days of the injury. It will increase the concentration of circulating antibodies and offer adequate protection from tetanus (Immunise.health.gov.au, 2017).

2.Physiological Basis For The Three Wound Observations

2.1Observations indicate the signs and symptoms for each of these wounds.

Mary reported three wound observations within 48 hours of the injury to the hospital. These were: hot and dry edges of the wound; swelling in the tissues around the injury; and purulent or odorous fluid from the wound.

A hot, red wound sign is an inflammation process. While swelling around the wound may indicate that capillary excess fluid has built up, it is also indicative of pain.

It is an indication of bacterial infection.

2.2 Discuss the physiological basis of your first observation.

When an injury is sustained, acute inflammation results. This happens when the compounds responsible for the inflammation are released.

These compounds include histamines. complement. leukotrienes. kinins. chemotactic and nitric oxygen. platelet activating factors. cytokines. interferons.

Many of these increase the permeability and dilate the arterioles, allowing cells to escape and reach the injured site.

Vasodilation of the arterioles causes an increase of blood flow, causing the edges to turn red.

The area around the injury heats up. This raises the metabolism rate and causes the edges to appear hot. (Marieb & Hoehn (2014)

2.3 Examine the physiological basis of the second observation.

Because fluid from the capillaries could have oozed out, swelling occurred in the tissue around the injury.

The fluid, rich in proteinaceous substance, accumulates in the tissues around the injury and is known as edema.

The swelling is usually associated by pain.

A patient should avoid experiencing pain. This helps to speed up the healing process.

2.4 Examine the physiological basis of the 3rd observation.

A purulent-smelling fluid will develop from the wound.

This is a sign of infection.

A fever is another sign that indicates an infection.

Staphylococcusaureus is an organism that lives on the skin. However, once it has infected the wound, it gains nutrition from the tissues below and becomes pathogenic.

It can be treated by using the right antibiotics.

An infected wound can cause pain and not heal unless the infectious bacteria is removed (Lee 2016).

3.Development and benefits of Fever

3.1How did Mary’s fever develop?

Mary’s fever was a result of the infected wound’s inflammation.

The endotoxins produced by the pathogenic bacteria are exogenouspyrogens. They trigger the release from inflamed tissue of endogenouspyrogens.

Some interferons, interleukin-6 (interleukin-1), interleukin-6 (interleukin-6), and cytokines are some of the pyrogens.

The pyrogens trigger the release of three key chemicals, which are responsible for the febrile response. These are prostaglandin E2, endothelin I and the corticotrophin-releasing factor.

The effects of these factors on the preoptic areas of the anterior Hypothalamus that are involved in thermoregulation causes fever.

Craft (2015).

3.2 Discuss the two best ways to use fever.

Fever is a condition where the body’s temperature rectal exceeds 380C.

It is protective because pathogens are unable to multiply at higher body temperature.

A second benefit is that fever lowers the levels of minerals in serum such as iron, zinc, copper and zinc.

These minerals are critical for multiplication and slow down the rate of multiplication (Marieb & Hoehn, 2014).

4.Possible sources of contamination and modes of transmission

4.1Identify one source of contamination endogenous to your host and discuss the transmission mode from that source to your new host.

Staphylococcusaureus can be easily transmitted via the endogenous.

It can also be transmitted to the injured site by the caregiver or patient’s contaminated hands.

Endogenous infection can be spread through nasal carriage.

According to Van den Berg, de Vogel and van Belkum (2015), more than 80% Staphylococcusaureus infections are of endogenous origin.

4.2Name an exogenous source and describe how the contamination is transmitted from the source to the target host.

Mary’s healthcare workers could have been a source of exogenous contamination at the wound site. This would also mean that the transmission of infection from one host to another is possible.

Lee, 2016. Although the wound was contaminated in soil, most soil bacteria is not able to survive in wounds.

Hand hygiene is an important step to avoid the transmission of bacteria to wounds.

5.Mary’s Antibacterial Agent, Augmentin: Mary’s Proper Use

5.1 Discuss why Augmentin makes sense, considering that Staphylococcusaureus was the colonizing organism.

According to the report from the culture test, Augmentin seems to be the most appropriate prescription. Also, the culture sensitive test reported that Augmentin reacts to Amoxycillin. Amoxycillin is one of Augmentin’s components.

Infected wounds should be treated with an oral antibiotic (Bullock & Manias 2017.

5.2 Explain the additional benefits Augmentin provides and give a brief description of the role of the major ingredients.

Augmentin combines Amoxycillin with clavulenic Acid.

Amoxycillin can be used as a betalactam antibiotic. Clavulenic acid, however, is a lactamase inhibitor.

Staphylococcus ausreus strains have been known to be resistant several antibiotics.

Amoxycillin’s mechanism of action is to prevent the formation and maintenance of the peptidoglycan cell walls of bacteria.

Amoxycillin is unable to prevent the multiplication of bacteria.

However, resistant bacteria can still synthesize an enzyme called “beta lactamase” that breaks down beta lactam rings. This allows for the synthesis of peptidoglycan cellwalls to take place even though Amoxycillin has been present.

Clavulenic acids inhibits the beta Lactamase enzyme of resistant bacteria to keep them sensitive against the bactericidal effects of Amoxycillin.

Augmentin is effective at killing pathogenic S.aurus, even in cases when they are resistant to Amoxycillin.6.Presentation

6.1Referencing within the text and in the reference list is in accordance with APA 6th edition. referencing style.

6.2Critique support by relevant literature as required.

6.3 Correct sentence structure and paragraph.

Refer toBullock, S., & Manias, E. (2017).

Fundamentals of pharmacology 8th ed.

Frenchs Forest, Australia – Pearson AustraliaCraft, J. &. (2015).

Understanding pathophysiology (2nd Australian/New Zealand ed. . Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier.Immunise.health.gov.au.

(2017, August 1) /Aus-Imm-Handbook.pdf. Retrieved from https://immunise.health.gov.au: https://immunise.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/7B28E87511E08905CA257D4D001DB1F8/$File/Aus-Imm-Handbook.pdfLee, G. &. (2016).

(2006). .

Pearson Australia. Melbourne.Marieb, E., & Hoehn, K. (2014). Human Anatomy & Physiology, Global Edition.

Pearson Education Limited.Van den Berg, S., de Vogel, C. P., van Belkum, A., & Bakker-Woudenberg, I. A. (2015).

Mild Staphylococcusaureus Skin Illness Improves the Course of Subsequent Enogenous S. aureus Bacteremia In Mice.

PLoS ONE., 10(6). e0129150. https://doi.org/10.1.