401013 Promoting Mental Health And Wellbeing 1


Australia is concerned about depression and suicide.

Analyse and discuss the rate of suicide in Australia.

Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
401013 Promoting Mental Health And Wellbeing 1
Just from $8/Page
Order Essay

Make sure to separate suicide prevention and treatment.

Utilizing relevant literature, identify and discuss critically one community group at risk for depression AND another community group at risk for Suicide.2.

Discuss with your client 2 possible contributing factors to their mental health issues and risks.3.

The ethical and legal aspects of health care can spark deep discussions among professionals from various perspectives.

The case study shows areas of risk that can cause harm to oneself and others.

The case study and literature can be used to discuss and define the ethical principles of beneficence or non-maleficence as well as aspects of the Mental Health ACT, 2007. These are relevant to the areas at risk.4.

From the case study, identify a high-priority mental health risk and offer two appropriate interventions.

The relevant literature can be used to help you explain the reasoning behind the interventions and their possible impact on the client.5.

From the case study identify a mental problem/need/concern and give two appropriate interventions.

Discuss the potential impact of the interventions on the client, drawing upon relevant literature.

Answer to Question: 401013 Promoting Mental Health And Wellbeing 1

Depression: According to the WHO survey depression is a major cause of death in adolescents (and young people) between the ages of 10-19.

This is a global survey, but the rates of depression are very common in Australia. Many teens struggle with distress and give up their lives to overcome it.

The most common reasons teens go for this path are either biological and mental disorders, such a bipolar or psychosis or developmental factors like trouble at school or college and problems at home.

The post-natal mental state was the most common reason for depression according to a study of Australian women.

The post-natal depression, also known as baby blues, affects around 16%.

The latest forecasts (Rich 2013) indicate that depression is increasing despite the fact that primary care workers are able to provide immediate treatment and the ongoing mental health survey conducted by the Australian government allowing for new and improved policies.

Suicide: Between 2006-2012, suicide has seen a marked increase in deaths.

The Australian Bureau of Statistics’ study found that suicide death rates rose from 10.2 per 100,000 to 11.2 per 100,000 between 2006 and 2012. (Suicide In Australia, 2016).

This is alarming given the fact that suicides are often triggered from the cluster effect.

It is alarming that suicides are more common among youth than among indigenous populations.B.Depression:

The world and Australia are facing a number of issues, including the mental health of our youth.

The teen and adolescent population is more exposed to social media, news, and online games than ever before, and children are at greater risk of developing depression.

Pearce, 2017, predicts that young females aged 12-20 years will be twice as susceptible to depression and restlessness as the males.

This is especially true for teenagers aged 18-19. They are more likely to be subject to peer pressure and stress due to their social lives, college bullying, and other factors.

The main reason young girls have mental health problems is likely to be social media.

This is because depression develops in the adolescent years and can impact mental health later on.Suicide:

In 2015, a survey showed that suicides among Torres-strait islanders and indigenous population were twice as high than those in nonindigenous populations (Armstrong G. 2017).

This suicide trend is more common in younger people.

According to the survey’s predictions, suicide rates among indigenous populations are lower than 35 years old. The majority of these deaths can also be attributed depression, substance abuse, and influence from others in the community.

Unfortunately, suicides or self harm symptoms are also common in females who are hospitalized and have been suffering from an illness.2.

Jonathan is a 19-year old youth who has experienced a series distressing events.

After the death of his mother (his father), and the growing distance between them, Jonathan suddenly feels isolated, lonely, and depressed.

Jonathan is depressed. His mother’s anniversary is approaching and he feels the only thing that will help him feel better would be to end this life.

Grenklo T. B. and others cite the reason for poor family cohesion.

As Grenklo (T. B.) and others (2014) point out, youth self-destructive behavior is often due to poor family cohesion.

Jonathan could have become agitated due to a disintegration of his family within months.

Jonathan is now closer to the one-year anniversary of his mother’s death after the tragic loss of a dear relative.

Jonathan has been through two major events at once.

One, Jonathan lost his mother. The illness would have been short-lived.

The second is that his father may be feeling lost as a result of his wife’s loss. He has taken to overtime work to cope with his grief.

Monitory issues are also a concern. But the father may have chosen to be independent in order not only to grieve but also to repay his loans.

The father, who is the sole parent, is not available to support Jonathan, or share his grief.

Jonathan is also facing challenges in life. He has trouble juggling work and family.

Jonathan is worried that he won’t be able to finish his TAFE training because of pending assignments and a lack of attendance.

Youth, especially those who have done well in academics, or any other field of interest, find it daunting to face new challenges. They also feel stressed about keeping up with their peers.

Jonathan experienced something similar and was forced to make the ultimate choice (Longbottom (2016)).

The last straw is the fight he had with his girlfriend.

Jonathan’s one-time act of violence was enough to trigger him.

Jonathan may have been dependent upon his girlfriend for emotional support since he lost his parent and was then left without another parent.

Jonathan now feels threatened by it. With his mother’s death anniversary nearing, an event that seems to have triggered everything, Jonathan might develop self-destruction thoughts and continue doing so unless help can be offered.3.

Jonathan is 19 in this case study.

According to the Mental Health Act 2007, Jonathan is considered an adult. He does not require parental supervision during hospitalization.

However, any legal issues regarding his admission and questioning by nurses at the emergency department are eliminated. But, ethical considerations should always be taken into account.

Medical professionals often place limitations on moral dilemmas.

Jonathan, for example, might not be able to make decisions on his own, even though he’s only 19.

A health care professional may need a conversation with an elder or parent in order to explain the situation and give advice.

As the patient’s mental condition is unstable, and the patient is more likely to choose the correct course of action, it becomes crucial to speak to someone with whom you can communicate the issue.

This is a difficult question to answer.

The experts believe that it is difficult and ethically questionable to deal with a person who is legally responsible for themselves (as a mature Jonathan, Jonathan is legally accountable for himself).

Applying the principles non-maleficence/beneficence in ethics to the patient’s wishes to end his lives as confidential information to the nurses, it is crucial that the information is given to the doctor.

Jie, 2015. The principle beneficence refers to the use information to achieve a positive result and do good for an individual.

Therefore, if the nurse is to apply the principle beneficence to Jonathan’s benefit, the information must be shared and sought relief in the form guidance and treatment from mental-health experts.

The principle non-maleficence implies that the patient should perform a deed they consider right or that is beneficial to them, according to their own predictions.

Jonathan might not wish to tell Jonathan about his desire to end life. Therefore, Jonathan might not feel comfortable seeking the assistance of a professional in mental health.

Jie suggests that we listen to Jonathan’s view about harm and benefit while using the non-maleficence/beneficence ethics principles to our case studies.4.

A thorough understanding of the person’s problems and root cause is essential for those with suicidal tendencies.

Some interventions by nursing professionals can be helpful in keeping suicidal tendencies under control.

Jonathan is a youngster in his prime. He has a promising career, once he completes his training.

The root cause of his extreme decision is something that should be examined.

To help the nurse develop a plan of treatment, it is important to get to the root cause.

Jonathan must be open about his life. He should also tell the professionals what is going on in his head.

An individual with a suicidal tendency may be open to receiving any treatment, provided they are able to get him to talk to the nurses about his motives.

Jonathan, here, has given enough information to his nurse in the emergency department regarding the problems he’s facing in life. He has also told her that he wants him to die.

Jonathan may have strong suicidal tendencies. It is important to monitor him while he is at the hospital and when he returns home.

People with suicidal tendencies might talk about death all the while, think of ways they can hurt themselves, or express despair.

Safe clinical practices and patient-centred interventions are just some of the options available to assist patients with self-destructive thinking. (Puntil et.al, 2013).

Being attentive to the patient and taking note of signs and symptoms can help in taking appropriate action.

Open communication (establishing a therapeutic partnership) is a good way to identify and address the problems.

Jonathan’s family should also be aware of possible symptoms. This will help them monitor their condition and provide emergency numbers to help if they need it.

Because he is constantly under the supervision of medical professionals, it is easier for nurses to keep track and monitor his reactions and unusual behaviours.

But, it is the responsibility for the parent or other primary care provider to make this happen at home.

Jonathan may not require 24 hour care but family members should be trained on what to look for in order to spot potential risks and prevent them.

Sarah, 2015 suggests that self-medications be kept out of reach, as well as monitoring for depression signs and not leaving patients alone for too long.

Family members will be able to spot any signs that may indicate the need to take immediate preventive measures.

Jonathan’s case history means that Jonathan’s family should be trained to keep medication and other suicide-prone material out of his reach.

The trust of both the patient’s family and friends can be crucial to stop Jonathan from repeating the same course of action.

Jonathan’s treatment will include the involvement of his family and girlfriend.

Referring them to mental healthcare agencies or counselling them through an external source is the next option.5.

Anxiety is a serious concern for mental health and should be treated immediately.

Anxiety can be described by feeling uncomfortable or having a vague feeling dread or discomfort. It is often accompanied with an automatic response.

Anxiety can be caused by many things.

Anxiety of any kind is possible, and everyone can feel it.

Anxiety is a condition that affects the ability to function normally in a situation. The person may lose their concentration, or show signs of distress, such as tremors (Lader, 2015).

A patient suffering from anxiety disorder should be treated with calmness.

Anxiety can make it difficult to live a normal life.

The person who handles the client should be calm and collected. Clients will feel less anxious and more at ease if they are treated with calmness and security.

Talking to them gently and asking them questions about their fears can help them be open to discussing possible solutions.

By gaining trust from the patient, a nurse can recognize the following facts – ABC – Alarms, Beliefs based on previous incidents that has resulted into the present condition and Coping Mechanisms which can be identified over a time period as being effective or ineffective (Bystritsky (2013)). These facts can then help in the treatment of patients to deal with their disorder.

CBT- cognitive behaviour therapy is also effective in treating anxiety.

A patient can overcome their anxiety by changing his perspective, understanding his anxious patterns and using positive outputs to help him/her.

An anxious patient can be a danger to others and himself.

As such, they might become more anxious.

In such cases, their anxiety might escalate.

CBT is used for those suffering from severe depression symptoms or suicidal tendencies. It has been shown to be effective in both these cases.

An individual who is afraid of dark places or gets anxious in crowded spaces can either leave the room or learn how to protect themselves from the dangers of crowds.

Kaczkurkin with his co-authors (2015) state that because each patient is different, and each situation is unique, it’s important to know which component can best be used in each situation.

ReferencesArmstrong, G., Pirkis, J., Arabena, K., Currier, D., Spittal, M. J., & Jorm, A. F. (2017).

Prevalence data show that suicidal behavior in Indigenous men is higher than that in non-Indigenous males living in regional and urban Australia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 000486741770405. doi:10.1177/0004867417704059Bystritsky, A., Khalsa, S. S., Cameron, M. E., & Schiffman, J. (2013, January).

Current Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Anxiety Disorders. Retrieved September 02, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628173/Grenklo, T. B., Kreicbergs, U., Valdimarsdottir, U. A., Nyberg, T., Steineck, G., & Furst, C. J.


Self-injury in youths after the death of a parent to cancer: A study that examined the impact of both health?care?related as well as family?related factors. Retrieved September 02, 2017, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pon.3515/full

Lawrence, D. Johnson S. Hafekost J. Haan K. D. & Sawyer M. (2015-08).

The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents. Retrieved September 1, 2017, from https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/9DA8CA21306FE6EDCA257E2700016945/%24File/child2.pdfHolm, A. L., & Severinsson, E. (2014).

Reflections on ethical dilemmas associated with self-management.

Nurs Ethics, 21(4) 402-413.Jie, L. (2015, December).

Patient suicide attempt – A case study in ethical dilemma. Retrieved September 01, 2017, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352013215000149

Lader M. (2015-01-01).

Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved September 02, 2017, from https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-642-36172-2_317Longbottom, J.

(2016 November 29).

Young Australian suicide rates are at their highest point in 10 year. Retrieved September 01, 2017, from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-11-30/system-for-suicide-prevention-rates-highest-10-years/8076780Nathan, P. E., & Gorman, J. M. (2015).

A guide to treatments that actually work.

Oxford University Press.

O’Connor P. J. Martin B., Weeks C. S. & Ong L. (2014).

The Health Belief Model: A study that examines factors that impact young people’s mental healthcare and seeker-help behavior. Retrieved September 02, 2017, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jan.12423/fullPuntil, C., York, J., et al. (2013).

Competency-Based Education for PMH Nurse Specialists.

Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. 19(4): 205-210.

Ricci C. (2015.08.26).

A key factor in young people’s education outcomes is mental health rates. Retrieved September 01, 2017, from https://www.smh.com.au/national/education/teenage-depression-and-suicide-rates-make-mental-health-an-education-issue-20150826-gj883d.htmlRich, J. L., Byrne, J. M., Curryer, C., Byles, J. E., & Loxton, D. (2013).

Prevalence and associated factors of depression among Australian women: systematic literature review, Jan 1999-January 2010.

BMC Res Notes. 6, 424.Robinson, J., Too, L. S., Pirkis, J., & Spittal, M. J. (2016).

Spatial suicide groups in Australia between 2010-12: A comparison between clusters and non-cluster among adults and young people. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 417.Sarah, B. R. (2015, June 11).

Suicide, Depression-Nanda Nursing Interventions & Outcomes

Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed With Anxiety or Depression: A Meta-Analysis Randomized Controlled Trials. Retrieved September 02, 2017, from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0096110