## Question:

Include details about the plant and each hormone, including how and/or from where it was made.

Your introduction should include references using the name and year.Results:

Provide null hypotheses for every statistical test (8-way ANOVA).

A statistical analysis can be done using any stats tool to determine the differences in the heights and the number of leaf pairings between each treatment (for each of these hormones).

ANOVA output will also include standard errors and the means of each increase in height or number of leaf pairs.

Two bar graphs can be created, each with standard error bars.

Write a few paragraphs about the trends you see in the graphs, and the visual observations made in a greenhouse.Discussion:

Consider the significance and decide on the Null (reject or fail) for each test.

Compare the results to other peer-reviewed publications and discuss your findings.

Your discussion should include appropriate references (Author, year).

## Answer to Question: BIOL 2P94 Plant Biology

Introduction

This study has used the pea plant (Pisumsativum).

This crop has been studied by Gregor Mendel since before the birth of William, Gregor and Bateson.

The plant produces green pods, which contain dry seeds.

These seeds are extremely popular because they can be used in both vegetable and pulse dishes.

This crop is high in nutrients and has high levels of vitamins A and B, protein, vitamins K, carbohydrates and calcium.

This pea crop can be developed with three hormones.

They are Gibberellic Acid – GA, Indole Acetic Acid – IAA and Kinetin.

Gibberellic acids is a hormone, which is often found in plants or fungi.

This acid assists in the growth, elongation and maintenance of plant cells (Iqbal Muhammad and Muhammad).

Indole Acetic Acid can also be referred to as a plant hormone. It is normally found in the tips or young leaves.

IAA signals for essential molecules which are needed for the growth and coordination of major plant components (Tabatabaei.

Kinetin, a type cytokinin, is also a plant hormone.

This hormone is responsible for promoting plant cell division (Bandivadekar. ).

Results

ANOVA is needed to measure the change in the heights of the pea seeds after the application of the three hormones Indole Acetic Acid, Kinetin and Gibberellic.

ANOVA is required to examine the standard error of mean height change after the application of Indole Acetic acid and Kinetin to pea seeds.

This hypothesis is used to conduct ANOVA tests.

Null Hypothesis, H01: Plants grow in the same way regardless of whether different types of hormones have been applied to their height.

Alternate Hypothesis 1 (HA1): Different types of hormones can have significant effects on height.

Table 1 and table 2 give the results of the ANOVA tests for the hypothesis H01.

Table 1: Summary of mean height increases after leaf treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

VarianceWater925.602.840.06IAA929.183.240.06Kinetin928.243.140.14GA984.609.400.61

Table 2: ANOVA Results for Mean Height Increases After Leaf Treatment

Source of VariationSS

dfMS

FP-value

F crit

Between Groups270.861390.287412.3500.0002.901

Within Groups7.007320.219

Total277.86835

As you can see, gibberellin has the greatest effect on the height of the pea seedlings.

Null Hypothesis, H02: Plants grow in the same way regardless of whether hormones are used for root treatment.

Alternate hypothesis (HA2) – The average height of plants can vary depending on the type of hormones used for root treatment.

Table 3 and table 4 provide the results from the ANOVA test of hypothesis H02

Table 3: Summary showing the average height gain after root treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

VarianceWater929.203.240.06IAA926.963.000.04Kinetin929.283.250.04GA928.993.220.06

Table 4: ANOVA Test Results for Mean Increase in Height After Root Treatment

Source of VariationSS

dfMS

FP-value

F crit

Between Groups0.40830.1362.7670.0582.901

Within Groups1.574320.049

Total1.98235

Null Hypothesis, H03: The increase in the number leaf pairs of plants is not affected by different leaf treatment hormones.

Alternate Hypothesis: This hypothesis is based on the assumption that there are significant variations in the growth of leaf pairs depending on whether different hormones have been applied to them.

Table 5 and 6, which show the ANOVA results for hypothesis H03, are available.

Table 5: Summary showing the average increase in leaf pairs after leaf treatments

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

VarianceWater932.963.660.14IAA948.835.430.67Kinetin931.603.510.12GA937.174.130.19

Table 6: ANOVA test results for mean increase of leaf pairs in leaf treatment

Source of VariationSS

dfMS

FP-value

F crit

Between Groups20.42936.81024.3420.0002.901

Within Groups8.952320.280

Total29.38135

Null Hypothesis, H04: There is no significant difference between the number of leaf pair of plants after root treatment using different types hormones.

Alternate Hypothesis, HA4: There is no significant difference between the number of leaf pair of plants after root treatment using different hormones.

Table 7 and 8. show the ANOVA results for H04 hypothesis.

Table 7: Summary showing the average increase in leaf-pairs after root treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

VarianceWater929.133.240.06IAA929.253.250.09Kinetin930.353.370.12GA927.173.020.37

Table 8: ANOVA test results for the mean increase of leaf pairs in response to root treatment

Source of VariationSS

dfMS

FP-value

F crit

Between Groups0.58630.1951.2300.3152.901

Within Groups5.080320.159

Total5.66535

As you can see, all three hormones (and water) are equally important for increasing the number leaf pairs after root treatments.

For this type of treatment, it is impossible to give importance to one of the hormones.

Discussion

To test each hypothesis, the ANOVA test was used.

Table 1 and table 2 give the ANOVA results for hypothesis H01.

You can see in table 2 that the p value was 0.000 for the hypothesis H01. This is lower than the level of significance (0.05 with 95 percent confidence interval).

The null hypothesis, H01, is therefore rejected.

Accordingly, the mean height increases do not differ depending on leaf treatment hormones.

You can see in table 4 that the value of the p is 0.058. This is significantly higher than the level for significance (0.05 at the 95 percent confidence interval).

Accordingly, the null hypothesis H02 has been accepted.

This means that there is a significant difference in height between different hormones, as well as water for root treatment.

You can see in table 6 that the value of the p is 0.000, which is lower than the level for significance (0.05 at 95 per cent confidence interval).

Thus, H03 is rejected as the null hypothesis.

This means that there is no difference in the amount of leaf pairs affected by different types of hormones, water and leaf treatments.

You can see in table 8 that the value of the p is 0.315. This is significantly higher than the level for significance (0.05 at the 95 percent confidence interval).

So, the null hypothesis H04 is accepted.

This means that there are significant differences in the root treatment results, in which the plant’s average number of leaf pairs increases with the addition of different hormones.

Because different hormones can have different growth levels, it is crucial to choose the right hormones for root treatment.

Because different hormones are not effective in promoting growth, it is not necessary to choose the right hormones for leaf treatments.

Method and Materials

Cairn’s greenhouse was used to apply the three hormones Indole Acetic Acid Gibberellic Acid and Kinetin to pea seedlings 15 days old in four lab sessions.

Before the hormones were used, height and number leaves per pair were recorded. This was also done one week later.

Refer toBandivadekar, Kavita, et al.

“Use of plant auxins produced by bacteria in plant tissue culture and seed pre-treatment; A possibility of replacing synthetic auxiliaryins.” Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci 5.11 (2016): 126-131.

Bateson (William) and Gregor Mendel.

Mendel’s principles for heredity. Courier Corporation, 2013.Iqbal, Muhammad, and Muhammad Ashraf.

“Gibberellic, an acid that mediates salt tolerance in wheat plants, induces growth, ionic partitioning and photosynthesis. It also increases yield, hormonal homeostasis, and yield.

Environmental and Experimental Botany (86): 76-85.Tabatabaei, Samira, et al.

“Indole-3acetic acid (IAA), produced by Pseudomonas isolates, inhibits seed germination (Triticumturgidum .).”).

Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research (14.1 (2016): 0802.