C100 Biology


Write a report describing the effects of exercise upon the cardiovascular system and musculoskeletal system.

The controlled evaluation of the lymphatic systems

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An assessment of different types of muscle, and muscle contraction

The report should explain in detail the impact of exercise on these systems.

The human musculoskeletal network1.

Compare and contrast various bones in the human bone skeleton2.

Describe the characteristics in a variety of joints, and describe the movements that can be performed for different types of synovial joints.3.

Identify and describe the function of two pairs of skeletal muscle pairs.4.

Show the structure of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle. Also explain how it contracts.

Know your respiratory system

Identify the gross anatomy of the respiratory tract and link it to its function.

Explain the relationship between the function and microscopic structure in an alveolus.

Study the changes in ventilation during exercise and rest. This will help you to understand homeostasis.

The circulatory system: Understand it

Compare and contrast different types of blood vessels, and help to explain mammalian double circulation.

Investigate the structure, function and control of the mammalian’s heart.

Describe the components of blood and describe the function of red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelets.

Answer to Question: C100 Biology


Exercise has a wide range of biological effects that affect the entire body.

These include changes to the heart, muscles, brain, heart, joints, and bones.

ATP and glucose are required for muscles to contract and relax during exercise.

The body creates more ATP through increasing oxygen demand. This causes increased breathing and increases blood flow to muscles (Rivera Brown & Frontera 2012).

Exercise makes the muscles more dependent on oxygen. This causes the lungs to work faster and the respiratory rate to increase.

To provide more blood for the muscles, the heart rate also rises.

Exercise improves blood flow to the brain, which in turn helps it function more effectively.

Exercising stimulates the growth and development of brain cells, which then helps to improve memory and learning (Thomas und al. 2012).

Exercises help maintain healthy bones.

This report describes each system briefly, and then discusses the effects that exercise has on each.

Musculoskeletal System

The musculoskeletal is responsible for providing support, form movement, stability, and mobility to the entire body.

It consists of bones, muscles joints, ligaments, cartilage, and other connective tissues which bind the tissues and organs together.

Bones From The Human Skeleton

There are five types of bones found in the human skull: long bones (short bones), short bones (flat bones), irregular bones, sesamoid bone and sutural bones.

The femurs of the long bones are the fibula (ulna), humerus (humerus), radius and tibia.

Long bones, which are formed by a shift with varying number of extremities, have curved ends that contribute to their mechanical strength.

The short bones are scaphoid and hamate bones as well as lunate and cuboid bones.

Cube-shaped short bones are designed to provide stability and support while allowing for very little movement.

The flat bones consist of the cranialbones. These include the frontal and parietal bones, sternum, the ribs, and the scapulae.

The flat bones protect soft tissues and other soft tissue that are underneath or enclosed by them.

The irregular bone group includes the atlas and all axis bones, hyoids, sphenoids, zygomatics and other facial bones.

These irregular bones provide mechanical support and have no defined shape.

The patella forms the sesamoid.

They are formed when tendons undergo friction, tension, and physical stress.

The sutural bones are small bones that are found between the bones and the cranium in the sutural junctions (Hillson, 2016).

Characteristics for Joints

The main types and types of joints found in the human body are the synovial joint, cartilaginous joint, and the fibrous.

The fibrous joints are both immovable, synarthrodial, and inert.

They are connected to one another via dense connective tissue, which is primarily collagen.

They do not have a cavity.

There are three types of sutures: syndesmoses; gomphoses; and

The cartilaginous bones form connections between the bones and cartilage.

They are semi-moveable.

The synovial bones can be freely moved.

They also have a synovial synovial capsule. It is the synovial membrane responsible to secrete the synovial fluid. 2015).

There are six types of synovial joints: ball and socket (ball and socket), saddle, condyloid, gliding, hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, ball and puck, saddle, condyloid.

The possible movements for the hinge joints are extension and flexion. For the ball and socket joint (shoulder, hip), flexion, extension, abduction, internal rotation and adduction are all possible.

The movements that occur in the saddle (thumb), condyloid (wrist), and condyloid (brain) are flexion.

Gliding movements (Sokoloff, 2014) are the movements of the intercarpal joint (gliding joints).

Functions of Skeletal Muscle – Pairs

The skeletal muscles pairs are composed of an antagonist and agonist.

The antagonist functions in the opposite direction to the agonist.

The biceps, triceps brachii, and the antagonist are the prime mover. They are located in both the anterior and posterior parts of the arm.

The triceps flexes while the bicepsbrachii extends forearm.

Another pair are the quadriceps brachii and the hamstrings.

The hamstrings are composed of three muscles in posterior part of thigh, and the quadriceps falmoris of four muscles in anterior part of thigh.

The hamstring is contracted, while the quadriceps tend to extend the legs (Jarmey und Sharkey 2016).

Skeletal & Cardiac Smooth Muscles

The skeletal muscle performs voluntary movement.

They differ in size, shape, fiber arrangement, and other characteristics.

Skeletal muscles are made up of many fibers that are wrapped around connective tissues.

The epimysium connective tissue layer is also known as epimysium.

Fascia is connective tissue that exists outside the epimysium.

Perimysium surrounds each bundle of muscle fibres, also known as fasciculus.

Endomysium is surrounding each muscle cell.

The skeletal muscular fiber is a single cylindrical cell.

The connective tissue provides protection and support for forces of contraction.

It is made up of blood vessels, nerves and other structures that assist in contraction (Frontera und Ochala 2015).

One part of the heart is called myocardium (or cardiac muscles).

It is made up a layer myocardium, which lies between the epicardium & endocardium.

The cardiac chambers, valves and endocardium are lined by the endocardium.

Epicardium protects, cushions and surrounds your heart.

The cardiomyocytes are the heart’s main component.

The contractions of the cardiac muscles are necessary to push blood out of the heart. This is called systole. Diastole is when the muscles relax.

The atria contract in order to push the blood to ventricles while the ventricles contract to push out the blood (Canale Campbell 2012, Smolich 2012).

Involuntary movements may be made by smooth muscles.

They are not striated, and the fibers of smooth muscles are small and tapered.

The nucleus of smooth muscle fibers is located in the center.

Constrictions to the vessels around smooth muscle contractions are produced.

This is part of our digestive system.

It helps to move fluids through the body and eliminates unwanted matter (Campbell, Campbell 2012).

Exercise Effects on Musculoskeletal System

Exercise has a positive effect upon the musculoskeletal.

It leads to an increase in muscle mass. This results in improved energy metabolism, posture and support for the entire body, maintenance of bone density and balance, and coordination.

It also increases joint motions and improves metabolic speeds.

Increased secretion synovial fluid and joint mobility are both helped by it.

Exercise helps increase metabolic activity in the muscles and aids in gaining lean mass and calories (Vincent Raiser & Vincent 2012).

Figure 1: Effects of exercise on the Musculoskeletal System

(Source: Pedersen und Febbraio in 2012)

Respiratory system

The respiratory system is a complex system that aids in inhalation as well as exhalation of respiratory gases, such carbon dioxide and oxygen.

Anatomy & Function

The respiratory system is composed of biological structures such the nose and nasal cavities, mouth and trachea.

The nose protects and supports the nasal cavity.

The harmful agents found in the air can be trapped by the hairs of the mucous membranes (Peters 2013,).

It involves warming outside air before entering the respiratory passages. When exhaled, the warm air from the nose cavity is returned to it.

The mouth acts as an alternative and adds to the nasal fluid.

The pharynx comprises the nasopharynx.

It functions as an intermediate between nasal cavity, larynx and esophagus.

The epiglottis is responsible for diverting air from laryngopharynx to larynx.

The larynx connects to the trachea and the laryngopharynx.

The vocal folds and thyroid cartilage, as well as the epiglottis and cricoids cartilage, make up the part of the larynx.

These cartilages support and protect the vocal folds.

Vocal folds aid in sound development.

The trachea contains hyaline-cartilage rings, which keeps the trachea opened for air intake.

The open end is located in front of the esophagus. This in turn allows food chunks to pass through.

The trachea connects to the bronchi through the larynx, and filters out any air that reaches the lungs.

The epithelium is responsible for trapping harmful particles.

The trachea lower section branches into primary bronchi.

Later, the bronchi branch into smaller ones in the lungs.

The secondary bronchi bring air to your lungs and are split into the third bronchi.

The tertiary lung splits into bronchioles.

They regulate airflow and trap harmful pollutants.

There are many alveoli, which are sacs within the lungs.

The blood can exchange the respiratory gases found in the air entering the alveoli with the blood passing through the capillaries.

The muscles that surround the lungs help with the continuous inhalation/exhalation of air (Ionescu 2013.

Structure of Alveoli, and Its Function

The lungs have microscopic branches called the respiratory bronchioles.

These branches connect to the alveolar tubes.

The alveolar ducts end is made up of alveolar capsules. These sacs contain between 20 and 30 alveoli.

The alveolar membranes have a thickness of one cell and come in contact with the capillaries.

With their large surface area and thin membranes, it is possible to easily allow gases to diffuse across the alveolar walls.

The oxygen from the inhaled breath is carried to the tissues by diffusion through the alveolar walls, capillaries, and red blood cells.

The body releases carbon dioxide into the alveoli.

Figure 2: Lungs, alveoli (Source: Hogan et al. 2014)

Exercise Effects on Ventilation & Relation to Homeostasis

At rest, ventilation is 5-6 liters/minute. When you work out, these values go up to 100 milliliters/minute.

As the exercise rate increases, so does ventilation.

Increased exercise increases oxygen consumption.

An average adult male can consume 250 ml of oxygen per minute at rest. For high endurance athletes, oxygen consumption can reach 5000 ml/minute.

A rise in pulmonary ventilation is due to an increase in respiratory rate and increased tidal size. This balances the increase in oxygen uptake with the decrease in carbon dioxide release.

At the start of exercise, ventilation suddenly increases and is then followed by a gradual increase.

Exercise aids in increasing energy consumption of the muscles and activating the energy generating reaction, which helps to maintain homeostasis.

In order to maintain a balance of oxygen levels, the heart rate increases will also help to deliver oxygen to the cells.

The body’s heat is maintained by exercising, and sweating removes it (Lekeux Art, Hodgson and Hodgson 2013).

Cardiovascular System

Types of Blood Vessels

The blood vessels of the human body are made up of three types.

These are the arteries, veins, capillaries.

These arteries are responsible to carry blood away from the heart.

The arteries can be divided into arterioles and capillaries.

The flow of blood is impeded by frictional resistance provided by the inner wall of the arterial.

The middle layer expands at heart beats while the outer layer acts to cover the blood.

The elastic stretch of the elastic layer and recoil help maintain pressure.

The veins carry the blood back to the heart.

The systemic veins carry deoxygenated water.

The superior and lower venacavas transport the blood from your body to the center.

The inner layer of the vein is called tunica intima. The outer layer is tunica adventitia.

The large area of the veins makes blood flow slower than in arteries.

Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels.

The capillaries, which are located between the blood and the tissues of the body, allow for the exchange of gases and nutrients.

Double circulation refers the existence of two loops. The oxygenated loop carries blood and the deoxygenated loop is carried by the other (Abramson 2013).

Structure of the heart

The heart controls blood circulation and pumps blood throughout the body.

The heart is composed of a reddish-brown muscle located on the exterior and connected to the pulmonary and vein arteries, the venacava and the aorta.

The ventricles and atria make up the internal part of the heart.

The atrioventricular ventricles separate the atria and ventricles. The semilunar ventricles separate the ventricles from pulmonary artery, aorta, and pulmonary artery.

Glass, Hunter, McCulloch 2012 states that the atrial walls and ventricular walls are both thin.Cardiac Cycle

The cardiac cycle is made up of the atrial, ventricular, and diastole.

The heart is filled with blood during the diastole.

The blood flows from venacava to pulmonary veins to atria, ventricles.

The atrial syncope is when the atria contracts, pumping more blood towards the ventricles.

The ventricular sistole occurs when the ventricles contract. The blood seals the atrioventricular valves, which prevent blood from entering the atrium.

The semilunar and atrioventricular valves are opened when the pressure rises. Blood is forced out of the heart to the arteries.

As the pressure decreases, the semilunar vales close and the valves in the atrioventricular open.

The heart beats by using signals from the electrical system.

This heartbeat aids in pumping blood throughout your body.

The electrical system is composed of the Hispurkinje system, the atrioventricular Node, and the sinoatrial.

The electrical signals cause heart chambers to contract and relax.

This is crucial during the cardiac cycles.

Composition of Blood and Other Associated Functions

The blood’s composition is made up of plasma, white and red blood cells, as well as platelets.

The red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to your body and carbon dioxide from the lungs. The platelets are needed to clot.

The lymphatic fluid is composed of white blood cells and lymph fluid. It helps to fight infection and remove unwanted toxic substances from the body (Bain 2014.

Cardiovascular System Exercise Effects

Exercise improves cardiovascular function by increasing blood circulation, lowering resting heart beat, improving blood flow, decreasing stress hormones and increasing blood vessels lining (Lavie, et al. 2015).

Figure 3: Cardiovascular system effects of exercise

Source: Golbidi 2012 and Laher 2012.


This report focuses on the effects of exercise upon the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems, as well as the cardiovascular system.

The effects exercise has on the musculoskeletal structure include increased blood flow as well as increased muscle size and coordination.

Exercise can have a positive effect on your respiratory system. This includes an increase in breathing rate, increased oxygen uptake, increased blood flow to the lungs and functional and vital capabilities. There is also increased exhalation, as well as increased carbon dioxide diffusion.

Exercise has an effect on the cardiovascular system by increasing heart rate and blood circulation.

It is vital to keep your body functioning properly.

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