CNA254 Nursing Practice


What are the costs of diabetes neuropathy to both the individual and wider community?

This could be a case study on one patient, but it should also explore the larger issue.

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1- Analyses and determines the costs of healthcare.

(Comprehensive analysis of all the costs associated the case/topic.

2- Demonstrates a deep understanding and knowledge of the chosen topic, including pathophysiology and pharmacology, and nursingcare (where relevant). Demonstrates exceptional and thorough knowledge of the topic. There are many connections and relationships that can be seen in the discussion.

3- Demonstrates the capacity to locate and appraise the most relevant evidence.

Answer to Question: CNA254 Nursing Practice


Diabetic neuropathies refer to the condition of causing damage to nerves associated with diabetes mellitus.

The conditions are microvascular and are caused when the injury gets infected with blood vessels that are quite small. This aids in ending diabetic neuropathy.

It also affects peripheral nerves. These include motor neurons, the fibers of pleasure, and the automated nervous system.

It can also affect the other organs.

The disease is divided into several parts based on how the symptoms are manifested.

These are the symptoms:

Balance and troubling

Dysesthesia (abnormal sensation to one body part)DiarrheaErectile dysfunction

Incontinence (loss in bladder control)

Drooping eyes, lips and facial skin

Vision is changingDizzinessAnorgasmia

Muscle weakness

Difficulty swallowing

Speech impairmentFasciculation(muscle contractions)Retrospective ejaculation

Electric pain

Identification and Analysis

Neuropathy is a common condition in people with diabetes.

It is caused by nerve damage and can lead to pain or even death.

Neuropathy can affect any area of the major framework. However, diabetic periphery nervepathy (DPN) is the most well-known. This condition causes loss or destruction of sensation in the arms.

DPN is almost always asymptomatic. Many people get foot ulcers or other symptoms before they realize that their nerves have been damaged.

While the causes of neuropathy may not be obvious, they are common in overweight people and those with high blood glucose levels.

Neuropathy is also associated with hypertension.

Diabetic neuropathy peripheral (DPN) can be a complex issue.

It is not a single presentation. People can experience a variety of reactions.

DPN can cause people to feel a shuddering, “sticks & needles” sensation or torment by eating, cutting or shivering.

DPN is often felt in the feet and can lead to changes in the foot’s physical condition. DPN’s underhandness to the nerves causes the muscles to twist up and the tendon to shorten.

DPN can cause carpal fragment issues in the lower arm and hands. These symptoms can increase the feeling of pain or even death.

For two to three individuals who experience genuine DPN’s mischievous affects, signs may appear with resting and working as well. They can furthermore impact propel complexities.

Costs for the Disease In A Broader Community

Current stats show that approximately 14 million people are affected by diabetic neuropathy. It is on the rise at 5% per annum.

The direct and indirect costs were 92$ billion in 1992 (Veves 2012).

Patients who have health insurance cover out-of–pocket costs are less than professional prescribed pharmaceutical copays.

Insurance provides regular coverage for treatment of neuropathy.

Patients who aren’t covered by insurance for medical reasons may be able to pay less for treatment. For example, a prescription for plan torment or over-the–counter pain relievers or a corticosteroid infusion can cost $500. A dynamic recovery session can cost from $50 to $350. It can also cost $1,000 to $5,000 depending on whether you need epidural or anticonvulsant drugs to alleviate nerve torment.

Surgery costs can vary depending on the type of procedure and the work environment (Zhuo Zhang & Hoerger 2013). charges around $10-$12 to purchase a one month supply of a nonspecific tricyclic stimulus, such as nortriptyline/amitripyline. This stimulant has been found to decrease nerve torment in a few patients. charges between $20 and $100, ward on estimations, for one-month supplies of nonexclusive course gabapentin – an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of neurological anguish – and about $70-$400 for Neurontin brand-name. charges between $100 and $250 for Lyrica (an anticonvulsant used in neurological pulverization) for a one month supply.

A session of dynamic recovery typically costs $50-$350 (Andrew, et al. 2014)

Different healthcare centers offer rebates up to 30% for uninsured patients.

Washington Hospital Healthcare System in California offers an additional 35% markdown.

ARC Physical Therapy in Illinois provides a 30% markdown for money paying patients. They also offer wonderful waivers and discounts for patients facing budgetary hardship (Zhuo Zhang & Hoerger 2013, 2013).

Some manufacturers offer assistance programs to patients.

Any patient with no specialist upheld cure capability who also isn’t possessed all of the required qualities for Medicare will be eligible for the Together Rx Access. It offers 25%-40% discounts on brand name drugs from different pharmaceutical alliances.

Most affiliations offer medications free of charge to patients who meet certain criteria.

Individuals’ Effects

Diagnosis for diabetic nervepathy can be made and managed. This can be done by examining the psychological as well as the physiological aspects (Dimitropoulos and al. 2014).

Here are some of the psychological effects suffered by a diabetic patient with neuropathy.



Disorders of eatingAdjustment disorders

Sexual dysfunctionPhobias

The patients with this particular disease, diabetic nervepathy, are also confronted culturally.

Problems can arise from:

Inadequacy of information regarding the availability of support services and treatments


Convictions in relation to religious facts

You can control the exercise and diet.

Barrier to understanding the languages spoken

Concerns about the value of the health behaviors

Diabetes can adversely affect the outlook and future a patient might have.

Nathan (2014) is an example.

The possibility that their children will develop the condition in the future can cause parental stress.

The need to manage this condition is not dependent on the mental demands of watching out for all around experienced hardships encountered for the navigational of the lifecycle, such as marriage, divorce, and pregnancy.

The development of complications in diabetes

If the individual experiences problems with change, they might also experience trouble.

The change framework can be affected by the significance of the disease (the disturbance depiction). 2014).

These are five common types of cognitive disease caused by diabetic Neuropathy.

Identity (a label attached to an illness or knowledge of its symptoms)

Cause (beliefs about the reason for the illness).

Timeline (the perception of the duration and course)

Consequences (the long-term and short-term effects of the disease)

Control / cure (beliefs about a degree of controllability / curability)

The presence of two to three hypoglycemic responses (for instance, grumpiness or loss of focus/poor recall, shaking and sweating), could indicate diabetes. They may also be more likely to experience weight gain and improve their ability to change.

These responses may indicate that the patient has diabetes. 2014).

Community Impact

The patient suffering from diabetic Neuropathy experiences severe pain in the joints.

Even the ankle joint feels extremely painful.

The patient and his family are not the only ones who have to deal with their problems.

As the time passes, so does the patient’s psychological well-being.

The family can offer support and sensible guidance to patients who are living with a serious illness.

It is unclear how social support can be used to encourage tolerance and adherence.

There are many factors that influence the outcome of patients’ care, including how accommodating and energetic support is provided.Patho-Physiology

The high levels of glucose dysmetabolism and neuropathy in patients with obstructed insulin resistance have been the subject of recent research.

The risk of developing neuropathy due to impaired glucose quality confirms the danger of hyperglycemia.

This is a more mild case of neuropathy than in late isolated diabetes. There is also less nerve-fiber collusion.

Polyol gathering, which can be seen in an animal model of diabetes, is also found in individuals. However it is unclear if neuropathy can be caused by the social gathering. Many aldose reductase inhibitors have failed to recognize any clinical changes in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.

A few studies have shown that diabetic neuropathy may be caused by mitochondria from critical neurons found in dorsal root Ganglia. 2016).

These mitochondria are weaker because in the hyperglycemic neural they are the mainspring of course action of responsive oxygen species. This can harm their DNA and movies.

Deregulation in part and blend proteins controlling mitochondrial shape and numbers can affect cell functions and cause degeneration.

There is an increasing amount of social data supporting oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. This has been supported by clinical trials of risk adjusting movements specialists.

These trials revealed that a-lipoic–ruinous association improved nerve conduction speeds and had strong results on neuropathic reactions (Forbes, Cooper 2013).

The thickening, hyalinization and shrinkage of the dividers small veins, which identify with reduplication the basal lina around endothelial tissues, suggests that there is a portion of nerve ischemia in diabetic nephropathy.


It is difficult to find a suitable moderation strategy for diabetic pain.

American Diabetes Association recommends that tricyclic antidepressants be used, followed by anticonvulsants (such as oxycodone) and opioids (such as tapentadol.

Achieving a glucose level within the target range could also lead to fringe neuropathy improvement (Sandireddy et. al. 2014).Antidepressants

TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants) are often used to treat symptomatic neuropathy. They have been proven to be effective in reducing the severity of diabetic neuropathy.

These TCAs include amitriptyline/nortriptyline/desipramine, imipramine, desipramine, and imipramine. However, they can cause unmistakable symptoms such as dry mouth and sweating (Aslam Singh, Rajbhandari 2014).

Desipramine can relieve diabetic neuropathy symptoms. It has a richness similar to that of amitriptyline.

Despite their side effects, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), may also be used as a bit of inside.

The stimulant duloxetine is effective in alleviating the suffering associated with diabetic nervepathy. There were no major differences in anxiety between amitriptyline (and duloxetine).

Because the combination was sensible, gabapentin did not work for diabetic neuropathy. Patients who were not responsive to gabapentin felt better.

Other antidepressants atypical, like bupropion and mirtazapine have not shown poor results in clinical trials to treat diabetic neuropathy. There are however some support tests for their use.Anticonvulsants

Gabapentin (and pregabalin), which are usually used to treat seizure problem, have been similarly taken into consideration for diabetic neuropathy pain and are used as about 25% of the cases.

Gabapentin’s co-relationship with morphine or oxycodone produces enhanced torment calming effects at lower prices than the treatment with either of these drugs.


Tapentadol (or oxycodone) or morphine can be used in conjunction with other opioid analgesics to reduce diabetic neuropathy pain. In any case, only 7% of cases are treated by them alone.

Extended cognizance of neuroimmune interplays might lead to new potential outcomes for the change of creative medication, particularly polytherapies which can be used as a piece.


The amount of diabetic neuropathy will depend on how well the diabetes key condition is treated (Peltier. 2014).

The treatment of diabetes may prevent further development and improve neuropathy signs, but recovery is easy.

In some cases, the neuropathy symptoms that cause diabetic neuropathy can be so severe as to cause extreme pain in some patients (Vinik et. al. 2013).

Treatment and Care

Diabetic nervepathy has no cure.

Here are some ways to treat it and how you can help.

Slow progression of the illness

Relaxation can be achieved through pain

Manage the complications and restore the function of the organs

Critical Appraisal

The literature review is composed of numerous studies that are in clinical practice.

It encompasses both the big and small.

It was focused on several symptoms that can be both painful and troublesome in nature (El Nahas und Feldt Rasmussen 2015).

The simple occurrence of neuropathy symptoms in Diabetic patients can lead to interference by the patient with neuropathy.

This review examines the neuropathy which helps in the neuritis periphery. It is based on the involvement in the brain, spine cord and nerves of cranium patients with diabetes mellitus.

Paralysis is not caused by loss of sensory neuron function.

Paralysis is a condition that causes impairment to the sensory nerves.

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