GCNNK1 Nursing Knowledge 1


Students are required to submit a critical analysis paper regarding Mr Ferguson’s nursing leadership.

Here’s a case study.

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These are the issues that should be addressed in the critical paper

1. Describe the patient’s current problem, with a focus on the pathophysiological problems.

2. Use of literature to review the pharmacokinetics of the prescribed medication.3.

Discuss the nursing approach to the patient.4.

Describe the information you would give to the patient. Describe how you will educate him/her about the interactions and long-term consequences of the medication prescribed in the ED.

Answer to Question: GCNNK1 Nursing Knowledge 1


Breathing difficulties can indicate that the patient is experiencing chest heaviness. This is due to blocked arteries, which reduce blood circulation and force the heart to fight for oxygen.

In order to improve the effectiveness and decrease the side effects of these conditions, patients with such conditions should learn how to manage them.

The Pathophysiology and Causes of Chest Heaviness

Cheat heaviness is a common sign of coronary artery disease. The blockage of arteries can lead to reduced circulation.

Chest heaviness is caused by shortness in breath, which makes it difficult for the patient breathe normally.

Tobin, 2010, cholesterol buildup can lead to thickening in the arteries which reduces blood flow.

This causes a decrease in blood flow to the heart muscles. It also means that less oxygen is reaching the heart, which can lead to damage to the endothelium.

These results lead to the buildup of cholesterol, fats, as well as lipoproteins in the vessels.

After fatty acids are formed in the arterial, the extracellular matrix which forms the atherosclerotic plaque that narrows luminal space (Carlos 2004,).

The result is a narrow, narrow cap that eventually leads to acute heart disease.

As plaque deposits get larger, blood vessels narrow and this can lead to myocardial injury. Also known as heart attack.

This happens most often when the heart stops functioning due to lack of oxygen.

Pharmacokinetics of the Prescribed Medications, and Their Indications.

Glyceryl trinate, according Baren, Brennan, & Brown (2008), can be used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease patients. It is a common medication that reduces the feeling of heavy chests by increasing blood flow, thereby restoring the patient’s normal state.

It works by dilation of blood vessels. This increases blood circulation, which in turn restores normal breathing.

The drug reduces the chance of suffering heart attacks in patients who have the condition. It also restores breathing, which helps to lower the risk of dying.

The drug releases nitric dioxide, which activates for Guanlyl Cycle. This triggers the formation of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate. This is a compound that mostly produces nitrogen. This makes the blood vessels and muscles relax, thus increasing blood circulation.

Glyceryl has a fast absorption rate in buccal, sublingual mucosa. This allows for the drug to reduce chest heaviness.

Ferguson is not a drug that can be used to treat chest pain. Patients who experience symptoms similar to Ferguson should contact their local doctor or visit a health facility immediately.

Kaski and Arrebola Moreno (2011) recommend that the drug must be taken within the first few minutes of an attack. This will allow the drug’s reverse effect to occur.

Positive results have been reported in most cases by patients who took the drug within a few hours of feeling symptoms.

Albrecht (2013) says that the medication’s effectiveness decreases with time. That may explain why Ferguson still doesn’t see any improvements in his symptoms after taking several puffs.

The drug’s effectiveness decreases after three weeks of continued usage because the body’s immune systems develop tolerance.

Tolerating the drug means that patients will need to consume a large number of doses in order to experience the effects of the disease.

There have been reports of side effects such as vascular abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction.

Side effects such as impaired transformation, counteraction with GTN and plasma volume expansion may occur in some patients. Some people also experience oxidative stress.

Nursing Management of The Negative Effects of The Medication

Thull Freedman (2010) states that chest pain or heaviness should be diagnosed according the specific guidelines of the relevant organization.

This means that the practitioner must follow specific steps and measures to diagnose the patient’s condition.

In Ferguson’s instance, the practitioner first needs to determine the nature and magnitude of the patient’s current condition.

The presence of chest pain does not necessarily indicate a heart attack. However, it could be due to indigestion, an innocuous condition or muscle strain.

Practitioners should assess the problem with tools such the PQRST assessment. These tools allow the practitioner to determine what triggered the problem, how severe the problem is, and what the patient feels. (Karnath Holden, Hussain & Hussain, 2008).

This allows the practitioner to evaluate the potential risk factors that the patient may be susceptible to such as a possible heart attack.

If there are at least two risks the patient is showing according to the signs, there may be a chance of a heart attack.

Information the Practitioner will Share with the Patient on Managing the Condition

The treatment of manageable conditions, such as chest heaviness, requires that practitioners educate patients on how they can help.

Arnold, Goodacre, Bath, & Price (2009) assert that chest heaviness is potentially fatal if it is not managed properly.

Nursing education helps patients to be able to manage their conditions, even if they occur at home.

Nursing education is necessary to make sure that patients are able to manage their condition. The spray is the best option for managing chest pain.

Therefore, patients need to be able detect the signs and symptoms early so that appropriate treatment can be taken.

First, the practitioner should help the patient realize that high-fat diets can cause blocked arteries.

Patient must learn how to consume fresh vegetables and fruits, while limiting their intake of fried foods, fast food, greasy foods, and alcohol.

It is easier to manage the condition if you eat a low-fat diet.

Many patients are faced with the challenge of managing their medications.

The role medication plays is to prevent episodes from happening.

In order to make the drugs work, the patient will need to have a system for tracking medication and following prescribed dosages.

Ferguson’s practitioner can help him establish a routine, and then work with him to create a plan that will ensure the medication is in sync with it.

So that medication can be taken immediately, it is important for the patient to fully understand the triggers.

Ferguson should be supported by their practitioner in developing a management program.

In order to prevent attacks, the patient should be aware of the importance and safety of using glyceryl whenever possible.

The patient must also be aware of the symptoms of an attack and how to use the inhaler promptly.

Glyceryl works best if it is taken within the first hour of an attack. Patients should then be supported in managing the condition.

A practitioner must also be mindful of the importance of exercise. Exercise helps to keep the patient healthy and improves blood circulation.

These patients can be helped by simple exercises like riding a bike or walking briskly.

Because the condition can be managed easily if the body has a good level of fitness, it will be difficult to experience episodes of chest heaviness.

Ferguson needs to find an exercise program that fits his lifestyle so that he can exercise easily.


If they understand the problem and create the proper management mechanisms, patients suffering from chest heaviness problems can lead normal lives.

This condition is not treatable, but medication can be used for the reduction of the severity.

The management education program helps patients to use glyceryl correctly and in an appropriate manner for their attack episodes.

This means that the drug should be administered immediately after an episode occurs in order to maximize the drug’s effectiveness.

Ferguson must be able manage the condition effectively by taking medication properly, exercising, eating right, and understanding the symptoms that can occur when episodes start.

Refer toAlbrecht, S. (2013).

The Pathophysiology and Treatment for Stable Angina Pectoris. Cardiovascular, 38(2), 43-60.Arnold, J., Goodacre, S., Bath, P., & Price, J. (2009).

Information sheets to patients with acute chest discomfort: Randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 338.Baren, J., S.G., R., B. J., & Brown, L. (2008).

Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Philadelphia: Elsevier.Berra, K., Fletcher, B., & Miller, N. H. (2007).

Chronic stable Angina: Addressing the patient’s needs through education and support, risk reduction, and education. 5th Quebec International Symposium on Cardiopulmonary Prevention/Rehabilitation, (pp. 13-15). Quebec .Brown, J., Clark, A., Dalal, H., Welch, K., & Taylor, R. (2011).

Patient education regarding the management of coronary artery disease. London: Wiley.Carlos, J. (2004).

Pathophysiology, Management and Treatment of Patients With Normal Coronary Ateriograms and Chest Pain (Cardiac Syndrome X). Circulation, 109, 568-572.Karnath, B., Holden, M., & H. N. (2008).

A review of the literature on chest pain in panic disorder patients.

Primary Care Companion, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 105 pp. 376-383.Kaski, J., Arrebola-Moreno, A., & Dungu, J. (2011).

Treatment strategies for chronic stable and severe angina.

Expert Opin Pharmaceuticalcother, 12, 283-2844Thull-Freedman, J. (2010).

Evaluation of pediatric patients with chest pain.

The Medical Clinics of North America (94(2)), 327-347.Tobin, K. (2010).

What is the current clinical evidence on stable angina pectoris?

The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 110(7): 364-370.