DNA profiling: Paternity testing and breeding of captive endangered animals, crime scenes
Research report related to genetic engineering.
The following sections will form the report.Introduction.
A brief description of the specific example in genetic engineering.
Include a social issue that is relevant to the example.
History or Background
Define the background or history of the development of this example.
Scientists use the same method
Describe how scientists used the technology in the laboratory.
Discussion on a relevant social topic
Discuss a topic that is relevant to genetic engineering.
Take a look at the opposing viewpoints and discuss both sides of each argument.
Answer to Question: GENEGENO02 Genetics And Genomics
Human female germ cells have two Xchromosomes, while human male germ cells only has one.
If fertilization happens via X sperm it results in female offspring. If fertilization occurs by Y sperm it results in make offspring.
The paternal test was founded on the ability of the male sperm to determine the sex of offspring.
You can perform parental testing using the DNA profiling or DNA fingerprinting.
For a woman to scientifically determine the father of a child, she can use parental testing.
A woman may try to avoid sharing custody of her child with her ex husband, but she might not be the biological father. The DNA profiling in parental test can help.
An adopted child might vouch in some cases for the information about his/her biological father/mother. Here, DNA profiling in parental testing is important (Buckleton. 2016).
Most violent crimes are committed primarily by males.
In order to identify the primary culprit, the only sample that is being kept behind is the male sperm.
Because the determinant maleness is Ychromosome, this is used as the foundation for paternal testing through DNA profiling (Toom 2012).
About the Y-chromosome
Human Y chromosomes are genetically identical to the X.
Later it was shown that Y chromosomes have fewer genes that the x chromosome.
Pseudoautosomal regions (PARs), which are located at two of the extreme ends of the Ychromosome, share homology. The remaining 95% is not homologous to the X chromosome. It is also known as nonrecombining region of theYchromosome or male specific area of theY (MSY).
The MSY is split into euchromatic areas (gene rich), and heterochromatic zones (lacking gene).
Near the PAR is the euchromatic region. This region contains the sex-determining area of the Y (SRY).
This euchromatin, or gene rich area of Y chromosome X, is the key target for DNA profiling in paternal test (Jangravi et.al 2012).
The intergenic part of the DNA that makes up most genes is a mixture unique and repeating sequences. These sequences are known as satellite.
These satellite are an important tool for genetic engineering.
When paternity testing is required, Variable number of Tandem repeats (VNTRs), are used.
VNTRs are related to the alteration in the degree repetition of the microsatellites. This gives an overview of DNA fingerprinting in paternal tests (Poznik. 2012).
Alec Jeffreys, et al. discovered the DNA fingerprinting technique.
Alec Jeffreys et. al. created the DNA fingerprinting technique in 1985. The first DNA fingerprinting application was filed in Bristol, UK (1987), to investigate a case linking burglary and sexual assault.
DNA fingerprinting is possible using both site-specific and random probes.
Jeffrey used multilocus probles that are repeated simultaneously within the introns of myoglobin genes (Roewer, 2013).
Scientists Use the Method
DNA fingerprinting is the most used method for scientific parental testing.
As probes, researchers can use either micro-satellites of short tandem repeats.
The DNA is extracted from the gene rich area of the Y-chromosome.
The isolated DNA was then amplified with PCRs by using STRs as probes. These probes were specific to the gene rich area or the euchromatin portion of the Ychromosome.
The amplified DNA then undergoes restriction digestion (also known by Restriction fragment size polymorphism or RFLP).
The digested DNA is then subjected agarose gel Electrophoresis.
This is where the DNa fragments are separated based on their charge/mass.
Here, the smallest DNA is able to move faster due to the electric field response.
Southern blot is used to hybridize the isolated DNA.
The DNA is separated using an agarose gel and a nylon membrane.
The running buffer is a mixture of chemicals that can be used to separate double-stranded DNA and single-stranded.
Under UV light, single-stranded DNA becomes crosslinked.
Radio-labelled probe (microsatellite), then is allowed to be bound with single stranded amlified DNA. An Xray film is then placed over the nylon gel, in order to detect patterns of radioactivity.
DNA fingerprinting is the visual pattern of the radio bands.
This band pattern is then compared with that of the father to find the similarity.
The PCR product is now subject to restriction digestion. This digested DNA is then sequenced.
The sequence patterns between the sons and the suspect father are compared to determine homology (Dolf, 2013).
Social IssueRelevant Social Issues
There are many social issues that can be associated with the profiling of parental DNA.
The genetic profiling of parents for financial purposes can have many consequences, including emotional, social, and financial risks.
Some people might feel angry, insensitive or anxious about their results.
Genetic testing can cause tension in the family because it may reveal disturbing information about family members.
The possibility of genetic discrimination within the insurance and employment sectors may be a result of genetic testing.
Family lawyers, who specialize in family law, believe that the test offers clarity but leaves uncharted emotional terrain.
Paternity testing is a very serious issue for parents who have adopted a child.
The child’s demands to hunt their biological father could cause pain to legal parents who have devoted their hearts and soul to raising the child.
However, a man can be inclined to get disgusted and avoid taking financial responsibility for his child when he discovers that the child he’s nurturing is not his biological son (Milunsky 2012.
Additionally, false positive results can be produced by paternity testing using DNA profiling.
The small tandem repeat (STR), or small nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), is unique in each individual. Therefore, when random STRs were used as probes, it could lead to false negative results (Pena 2013). 2012).
The DNA profiling of paternal testing has been proven to be very useful for women who are trying to secure financial rights for their children with biological fathers.
These women are usually rape victims.
Of course, the person found guilty will often claim that he does not bear the responsibility for his children.
It has become much easier for the courts to find the biological father of children through DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling.
The DNA profiling is also extremely useful to find the convicts for rape (Alrc.gov.au 2017).
Orphan children leaving an orphanage might use DNA fingerprinting as a way to find their biological father. They can then claim their family rights in society.
The same holds true for children born after artificial reproduction or intra-vitro fertilation (Ravelingien und Pennings 2013).
There are also other supporting views
Men have the right to determine or claim paternity.
Children have the right of knowing their biological parents
Refer toBachtrog, D., 2013.
Y chromosome development: new insights into the mechanisms of Y chromosome loss.
Nature reviews. Genetics, 14(2), p.113.Buckleton, J.S., Bright, J.A.
Taylor, D. eds., 2016.
Forensic DNA evidence interpretation.
CRC press.Toom, V., 2012.
Bodies in science and law: Forensic DNA profiling. Biopower.
Journal of Law and Society. 39(1). pp.150-162.Jangravi, Z., Alikhani, M., Arefnezhad, B., Sharifi Tabar, M., Taleahmad, S., Karamzadeh, R., Jadaliha, M., Mousavi, S.A., Ahmadi Rastegar, D., Parsamatin, P. and Vakilian, H., 2012.
A fresh view of the male-specific region on the human Ychromosome.
Journal of proteome research, 12(1) pp.6-22.Poznik, G.D., Henn, B.M., Yee, M.C., Sliwerska, E., Euskirchen, G.M., Lin, A.A., Snyder, M., Quintana-Murci, L., Kidd, J.M., Underhill, P.A.
Sequencing the Y chromosomes helps to resolve discrepancies in time to common ancestor of males and women. Science, 341(6145), pp.562-565.Roewer, L., 2013. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future. Investigative genetics, 4(1), p.22.Dolf, G., 2013.
DNA fingerprinting: approaches to and applications (Vol. 58). Birkhauser.Milunsky, A., 2012.
Genetics and the Law.
Springer Science & Business Media.Pena, S.D. ed., 2013.
DNA fingerprinting: State of the science. Springer.
Lu, D.. Liu Q. Wu W. and Zhao H.
Mutation analysis on 24 short tandem repeats of the Chinese Han population.
International journal on legal medicine, 26.2(2), 333-335.
Ravelingien A. & Pennings G. 2013.
The right of knowing your genetic parents: From open identity gamete donations to routine paternity testing.
American Journal of Bioethics. 13(5). pp. 33–41.Alrc.gov.au. (2017).
Mutation analysis on 24 short tandem repeats in Chinese Han populations.
International journal on legal medicine, 26.2(2), 333-335.