HLSC122 Inquiry In Health Care


Leah is a 21-year old student in health sciences at an Australian University.

She has traveled from her homeland (United States [US]), to study for a semester here.

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She reported that she gained weight while living with three international students. It was due to not eating healthy meals and not exercising enough.

Leah has enjoyed living away and socializing with other international students. She enjoys going out to parties and trying different Australian take-outs and mixed alcoholic beverages.

At least four times per week, Leah used to go to the US gym.

Leah chose to spend her money in Australia on social activities instead of going to the gym.

Leah also works as a casual employee to supplement her living in Australia.

She loves to travel, and she is not homesick.

She wants to make long-term changes in her lifestyle that will improve her weight and her eating habits.

Leah visits a university student health clinic, and asks you to help her with any health issues.

After your initial meeting, Leah suggests that you find two relevant research studies you are interested in critically evaluating for quality.

The following PICO questions are used to perform a systematic search

Part A

Critically analyze the two research articles that Leah found in her CINAHL search. (Rogerson Soltani & Copeland. (2016); Share et al. (2015)).1.


Consider the author’s expertise, qualifications, affiliations.b.

Are there conflicts of interest with respect to the paper’s authors and study findings?2.

Research Aimsa.

What was the research question?b.



Examine the research methodology.b.

Explain why the methodology and the methods were suitable to meet the study’s objectives.

c. Who were participants in the research?4.

Findingsa. Discuss how the findings/results/conclusion answers the stated research question, aim or hypothesis?

Part B1.

Discuss Leah’s personal circumstances as a barrier to the application and use of evidence.2.

Discuss how closely research matches the PICO question.

Answer to Question: HLSC122 Inquiry In Health Care

Part A.1. Authorship:a.

Bianca Share (authors of the two research articles) is responsible for creating them.

David Rogerson works as a faculty member at Sheffield Hallam University and Health and well being.

His major qualifications include B.Sc. M.Sc. as well as a Doctorate in Professional Studies.

He is a registered Nutritionist with fellowship (FHEA). He has seventeen citations as well as 6 research publications. There are 937 publications that he has read.

He is an expert in nutrition, having a specialization in public-health nutrition.

He fully justified his research paper on Weight Loss. He knows that it’s a complex process, and many factors can be directly linked to itRogerson Soltani Copeland, 2016,

Bianca Share holds a faculty position in the department of physiology, public health at Australian Catholic University.

She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Exercise Science with Honors and has also completed her Post Doctorate.

She has 18 citations to her name, 443 publications she has read, and 12 papers published in research.

She is an Exercise Science professional who was able to justify her research.

She is knowledgeable and can manage patients through various lifestyle changes and ensure a positive outcome (Share al., 2015).b.

Although the research publications both focus on bodyweight and its loss, there are some differences.

Bianca Share wrote the research publication. It is based on the observation that obesity in young women can be reduced by lifestyle changes.

Cardio metabolic is the combination of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

It’s caused by atherogenic dislipidemia and resistance insulin. This in turn is due to high levels of triglycerides as well as low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

This condition affects women who have a higher cholesterol level than 50 mg/dl and a larger waist circumference than 88cm.

A large number of females were included in the study. Lifestyle changes were made to the population, and the results were recorded according to the outcome.

The results were obtained with a linear mix model, which is completely distinct from the other research publication ( Richardson Tench et. al. 2016 ).

Rogerson has published a research paper that explores the experience of weight loss.

He examines both weight loss and maintenance.

He looks at the factors that hinder the loss of weight and the ones that assist in weight gain.

The semi structured interview is used for his research.

The data was then used for analysis.

Verification of the data was also done.2.

Research Aimsa.

Share’s primary objective was to see if 12 weeks of multidisciplinary lifestyle changes could have an impact on cardio metabolic disorders in young obese women. This was done using therapy behavior, diet, and physical activity changes in the females in the study group.

Rogerson had one main objective. He wanted to investigate the effects of weight loss on a group of participants, using an interview method. This did not include clinical changes.

Participants were selected from those who had undergone weight loss programs.b.

Share conducted a study to determine if there were any young females between the ages of 18 and 30 with abdominal obesity. To achieve her objectives, she selected these women.

The changes observed were carefully recorded and it was found that the risk of cardio metabolic diseases was decreased by changing the lifestyle habits of the female participants.

The researcher’s goals were met by the obtained results.

Rogerson had one main objective in his case: to identify and control factors that could hinder or assist weight loss.

He did not employ clinical interventions that could be more accurate.

He did a systematic interview and determined that the factors that led to weight loss were dichotomous thinking, social pressure and peer pressure.

The study’s objectives were justified (Hoffman, Bennet, Del Mar, 2013).3.


Pre control testing/pre changes were performed on the participants who were finalized. They were then divided into two groups: the wait-listed and intervention groups.

Because the researcher wanted a precise model, the waitlist design was chosen.

This model is ethical. It allows participants to change their lifestyles (Sabouret and al., 2015).

The wait list group was superior to the control group.

Participants were asked two times to visit the lab for each period (0, 12, 24).

Initial, participants were asked to be in a fasting condition for 75 minutes. Once that time has passed, they will be instructed to abstain from alcohol and coffee.

The test were performed in the following time periods for the intervention: (pre ), 0 Week, (post ) 12 Weeks, and (sustainability Phase) 24 Weeks.

The testing of the control group was done at the same interval (pre and post control).

Anthropometric measurements (total body measurement including BMI circumference and metabolic markers were checked) and evaluations of heart rate (heart rate was compared with the work rate) were some of the testing measures. Survey data also collected complete lifestyle data.

Participants received counseling and psychosocial support. They also received nutrition education and exercise supervision from an exercise scientist.

Rogerson used a variety of methods to explore the effects of weight loss. These included theoretical underpinning (to examine participants experience and was granted ethics by Sheffield Hallam University), sampling, data saturation (interview data collected by face-to face using interview guide, and digital recording device) and data analysis (using proper frame analysis). Verification (codes themes and theoretical framework was checked) (Rogerson. Soltani Copeland. 2016).b.

All methods and all the methods used in the research papers met the requirements.

Two groups were formed for Share. The control group had one participant.

It was set up to meet the conditions and achieve the desired results without fail.

For the purpose of checking the outcome, it was necessary to document the changes made.

Rogerson used an interview procedure and recorded it to provide evidence. Purposive sampling was also used for sampling.

Greenhalgh et. al. (2016) used an interview guide to collect the data, and then verified it.

Author Share had 62 participants interested in the program. These were all people who were susceptible to CVD.

39 of these people were selected to continue investigation.

Rogerson’s research was limited in number, with only 6 of them being able to reach the desired results.4. Findings:a.

Share’s study revealed positive results.

After the end of the research, changes in lifestyle such as nutrition education, exercise therapy and behavior were able to reduce the risk of CVD.

Unexpected and positive changes were also observed in the control and may outweigh the improvements in the intervention groups.

These results were challenging to obtain in prospective studies with obese young females.

Rogerson’s research showed that weight loss is complicated. There are many factors which can hinder and facilitate weight loss.

The research sample provided data saturation. This study also helped in sharing all information related to weight loss.

The lack of diversity in the sample was the main issue. This is because the information related all ethnic and social groups was not included.

PICO Question –

Are Female Students at University able to Lose Weight by Eating Healthy compared To Exercising?P (patient/population):- Female University StudentsI (intervention/indicator):- Healthy EatingC (control):- Exercise

O (outcomes):- Leading towards weight loss

Part B:1.

Leah’s story was used to frame the PICO Question.

Leah’s personal circumstance, which can create a barrier are her peer or social pressure (three students from abroad) that forced her to adopt a healthy eating pattern.

Because of her abdominal obesity, she had to stop going to the gym.

She wanted to be able to socialize and party, as well as eat Australian take-out and alcohol.

So that she could live the Australian lifestyle, she also took on a part-time job.

She believed that even though she could stop her friends from stopping her, they wouldn’t leave her to do so.2.

PICO patterns are used to guide the research at Share.

P (participants). Although there were 62 female students initially chosen, only 39 were available for the research.

The students were considered at highest risk for CVD due to their abdominal obesity.

Leah may also have abdominal obesity, and could be at risk of developing CVD.

Pico question says that university students can participate.

I (Intervention) – This was a 12-week lifestyle change.

It covered nutrition education and physical activity as well as behavior therapy.

These changes will allow Leah to lose weight and reduce the risk of CVD.

C (Control), – To compare the research objective, the control group was created alongside the intervention group.

O (Outcome).- The results revealed that the lifestyle changes had caused sufficient weight reductions in the intervention group.

Leah may experience weight loss if she makes these lifestyle changes.

Rogerson’s research study covers weight loss and its maintenance.

After the changes in research by Share, this research could be applied to Leah.

The clinical results of this study were not changed.

For this research, people who were on a weight loss diet were chosen.

Interviews were conducted and data was collected. Finally, verification was made.

Here is the result: factors that can inhibit and/or facilitate weight loss.

The difficult task of losing weight is not easy because there are many factors.

Leah is a university student facing problems in maintaining a healthy life style due to friends who have influenced her.

She became obese after she began eating Australian take-out and alcohol.

She quit going to the fitness center because she wants to have fun and enjoy life.

These factors are only derived from interviews with certain participants.References:-Coelho, R. C. L. A. (2016).

Obese people will overeat occasionally, which will make their adhesion last longer. The Controlled Overeat.

Journal of Obesity Eating Disorders.Greenhalgh, T., Bidewell, J., Crisp, E., Lambros, A., Warland, J. (2016).

Understanding Research Methods in Evidence-Based Practice for Health 1e.Hoffmann, T., Bennett, S., Del Mar, C. (2013).

Evidence-based health practiceKritchevsky, S. B., Beavers, K. M., Miller, M. E., Shea, M. K., Houston, D. K., Kitzman, D. W., Nicklas, B. J. (2015).

A meta-analysis comparing randomised clinical trials to determine if intentional weight loss is associated with all-cause mortality.

PLoS One. 10(3). e0121993.Leibel, R. L., Rosenbaum, M., Hirsch, J. (2015).

Affected body weight results in changes in energy expenditure.

New England Journal of Medicine. 332 (10), 621-628.professions. Elsevier Health Sciences.Richardson-Tench, Marilyn Taylor, Beverley J. (Beverley Joan), 1951-, (author.) Kermode, Stephen, (author.) Roberts, Kathryn L. (Kathryn Louise), 1943-, (author.) (2016).

Inquiry on health care (5th edition). South Melbourne, Victoria Cengage Learning AustraliaRogerson, D., Soltani, H., Copeland, R. (2016).

A qualitative exploration into the weight-loss journey.

BMC Public Health, 16(1): 371.Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., Copeland, R. (2016).

UK graduate nutrition education may not address weight management.

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A randomised clinical trial to examine the impact of nutritional education programs and behavioral intervention on blood sugar, body fat and serum lipid profiles in Iranian patients with severe spinal cord injury.

The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine.Share, B. L., Naughton, G. A., Obert, P., Peat, J. K., Aumand, E. A., Kemp, J. G. (2015).

A Randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of a multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardio metabolic risk factors in young females with abdominal obesity.

PloS one 10, e0130270.Zulkosky, K. (2014, April). Self?efficacy: a concept analysis. In Nursing Forum (Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 93-102).

Blackwell Publishing Inc.

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