Based on the protocol that was used by the system, the Maximum Transmission Units or MTUs range from 296 – 65,535
What are the benefits to having a large MTU
What are the advantages of a small MTU
Compare and contrast CSMA/CD vs CSMA/CA.
What are the purposes of including the IP header as well as the first 8 bytes from datagram data within the error reporting ICMP Messages?
What ICMP message contains part of an IP datagram?
Why is this important?
ISPs have allocated the following block to classless addresses to organisations.
188.8.131.52/28 Identify all addresses within the range.
You should show your calculations in as many details as possible
A router running RIP can have a routing tree with 20 entries.
a. How many periodic times do you need to handle this table.
Give your answer.
b. What number of expiration times is required to handle this particular table?
Give your answer.
c. How many garbage pickup times are necessary to dispose of this table, if five routers are inoperative?
As the network administrator at a growing Internet service providers (ISP), you want efficient use of your network address.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority assigned you a classless network with 184.108.40.206/23.
You have chosen to use the network address to satisfy 16 corporate customers’ IP address requirements. Each customer requires between 18-30 host addresses.
To calculate a subnet Mask that suits their needs, you can’t use a subnet calculator.
List the subnet mask as well as all subnetwork addresses it will create.
Show the details.
An employee calls you from a help desk stating that she is unable to access network resources.
The employee needs to be able to view her IP addresses.
You sent an e mail to the employee explaining which command-line program is best and how she can use it for the information you require.
You tell the employee that her IP address has been changed to 169.254.14.11, with subnet mask 255.255.0.0.
What conclusion can we draw from this information
As the network administrator for an ISP, you need to make the most of your network address.
One of the network address Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, (IANA), assigned to you is a class C network at 192.168.1.0.
To meet the IP address requirements of 16 corporate clients who need between 10-14 addresses each, you’ve decided to use Class C network addresses.
Use a subnet calculator to calculate a subnet Mask that suits their needs.
The subnet mask you will use and the subnetwork addresses you will create are listed.
Show the detail calculation for each output
An organization is given a block with the beginning address 220.127.116.11/24.
The organization will need to have three subblocks with addresses that it can use in its three subnets, as shown below. ?
O ne Subblock of 120 Addresses.?
O ne subblock for 60 addresses.
?One subblock of ten addresses
Answer the following questions and calculate each one.
Calculate the total IP address count, first and final addresses of each block.
Calculate subnet masks, subnetwork addresses and broadcast addresses of all subnets
Answer to Question: ITC542 Internetworking With TCP/IP
Advantages of a larger MTU are:
They are appropriate to handle large data transfers over a greater distance.
You don’t need to be fragmented for quick delivery or lost datagrams.
For small MTUs, the advantages are:
Transfer of time sensitive data, like audio or video, can be done with ease.
The suit that is used for multiplexing.2.
CSMA/CD enables collision detection.
The collision detection is done using the terminations which are based on the system standards. Also, the data is detected depending upon the transmitter so that there is no waste of time.
With this, the last information can be easily re-transmitted.
CSMA/CA does away with the need for recovery in case of collision.
Important is to ensure that the medium in use is checked.
How to find the busy spot where the transmitter is set up. After that, the transmitter waits until it is completely idle before it transmits.
The best way to minimize the possibility of collisions is to make better use of your medium.3.
It is essential to match packets to the sender.
Understanding the error messages at destination is crucial. You should pay attention to the unreachable messages, as well as the causes.
The source IP address can be used to determine the router’s interface by sending an ICMP ping.
The payload will include the TCP source as well as the destination port in the first bytes.
To troubleshoot problems, you can also work on TTL expiration message and source quench.4.
IP header contains IP datagram.
It’s used to identify the source and destination packets.5.Address: 18.104.22.168Netmask: 255.255.255.240Wildcard: 0.0.0.15Network: 22.214.171.124/28 10100000.01000110.00111100.0000 0000 (Class B)Broadcast: 126.96.36.199HostMin: 188.8.131.52HostMax: 184.108.40.206Hosts/Net: 146.
There are 40 periodic times, one for each period.
Each period requires 20 expiration time.
21 garbage collection times are required after each router.7.
Major Network: 220.127.116.11/23
Available IP addresses for major networks: 510
Required IP addresses: 480
Available IP addresses in allotted subnets:
A little over 100% of the major network address space available is being used
About 100% subnetted network address spaces are used
A303018.104.22.168/27255.255.255.22422.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199188.8.131.52
B3030184.108.40.206/27255.255.255.224220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.16822.214.171.124
C3030126.96.36.199/27255.255.255.224188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206220.127.116.11
D303018.104.22.168/27255.255.255.22422.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199188.8.131.52
E3030184.108.40.206/27255.255.255.224220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.16822.214.171.124
F3030126.96.36.199/27255.255.255.224188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206220.127.116.11
G303018.104.22.168/27255.255.255.22422.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199188.8.131.52
H3030184.108.40.206/27255.255.255.224220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.16822.214.171.124
I3030126.96.36.199/27255.255.255.224188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206220.127.116.11
J303018.104.22.168/27255.255.255.22422.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199188.8.131.52K3030184.108.40.206/27255.255.255.224220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.16822.214.171.124
L3030126.96.36.199/27255.255.255.224188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206220.127.116.11
M303018.104.22.168/27255.255.255.22422.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199188.8.131.52
N3030184.108.40.206/27255.255.255.224220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.16822.214.171.124
O3030126.96.36.199/27255.255.255.224188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206220.127.116.11
P303018.104.22.168/27255.255.255.22422.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199188.8.131.528.
It can be concluded from this information that the subnet masking was done incorrectly, that there has been a DHCP error and that automatic subnetting wasn’t performed.
The client’s network is not connected, so it will need to reset.9.
Available IP addresses for major network:
Number of IP Addresses Required: 224
Available IP addresses within allocated subnets – 224
About 50% of major network addressable space is used
More than 100% of subnetted networking address space are used
Name of Subnet
A1414192.168.0.0/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.1 – 192.168.0.141184.108.40.206
B1414192.168.0.16/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.17 – 192.168.0.30192.168.0.31
C1414192.168.0.32/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.33 – 192.168.0.46192.168.0.47
D1414192.168.0.48/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.49 – 192.168.0.62192.168.0.63
E1414192.168.0.64/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.65 – 192.168.0.78192.168.0.79
F1414192.168.0.80/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.81 – 192.168.0.94192.168.0.95
G1414192.168.0.96/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.97 – 192.168.0.110192.168.0.111
H1414192.168.0.112/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.113 – 192.168.0.126192.168.0.127
I1414192.168.0.128/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.129 – 192.168.0.142192.168.0.143
J1414192.168.0.144/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.145 – 192.168.0.158192.168.0.159K1414192.168.0.160/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.161 – 192.168.0.174192.168.0.175
L1414192.168.0.176/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.177 – 192.168.0.190192.168.0.191
M1414192.168.0.192/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.193 – 192.168.0.206192.168.0.207
N1414192.168.0.208/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.209 – 192.168.0.222192.168.0.223
O1414192.168.0.224/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.225 – 192.168.0.238192.168.0.239
P1414192.168.0.240/28255.255.255.240192.168.0.241 – 192.168.0.254192.168.0.25510.
Major Network 220.127.116.11/24
Available IP addresses for major networks: 254
Number of IP Addresses Required: 190
Available IP addresses within allocated subnets – 202
81% of major network addressable space is being used
A little over 94% subnetted network address area is being used
Name of Subnet
A12012618.104.22.168/25255.255.255.12822.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199188.8.131.52
B606184.108.40.206/26255.255.255.192220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.16822.214.171.124
C1014126.96.36.199/28255.255.255.240188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206220.127.116.11