Demonstrate an indepth awareness of different theories regarding development, which can inform treatment modalities.
Identify and discuss critically the transition point throughout your lifespan for potential vulnerability, crisis or mental health;
Analyze and critically review therapeutic interventions that have been informed by developmental theories and applied to specific mental illnesses and disorders.
Examine and discuss the contexts that impact people with complex mental illnesses and disorders.
Answer to Question: MPLHS3ATI Application Of Therapeutic Interventions Across The Life Span
Many reasons have been given for psychologists to use psychology.
Psychology is a useful tool in mental health, and in health sciences generally. It can help doctors to treat patients or formulate care plans.
A nurse can often use the theory of Psychology to develop and implement a program of nursing care.
This essay will examine two fundamental theories of psychology and discuss how they can assist in developing a nursing care program.
Further, the essay demonstrates a case study that demonstrates how the psychology theory can be used to formulate a nursing care plan for a patient who has mental problems.
These two theories will be used in the case study: psychoanalytical theories and developmental theories.
The essay will discuss the different theories from a broader perspective and how to create a nursing care plan.
This essay will include a case study on an elderly man suffering from depression, who seeks medical treatment for his condition.
The Developmental Theory
These theories believe that growth is continuous and complex.
In addition, they accept the idea that growth and developmental are dependent on time and follow a specific pattern that defines the developmental sequence (Allingham (2015)).
The theories suggest that the genes are responsible for growth. However the environment can have a significant impact on human development.
Many factors can influence growth.
They include the environment, nutrition and stress.
They are essential in nursing in many ways.
The theories help nurses realize that self-concept building is a lifetime process (Burman (2016)).
They also aid nurses in recognizing what can be considered normal and unacceptable behavior in a patient.
Concerning self-concept the nurse notes the patient’s body images, self-esteem and the identity they portray.
Nurses consider the identity and interrelated terms that make up self-concepts. This includes the person’s body image, performance in their role, and how they look.
Butcher et.al., 2013, emphasized the importance of defining the meaning of the three concepts.
For body image, it refers to how an individual views their body, including its structure, appearance and function.
In terms of role performance, it refers how people perform their duties.
According to development theories and their role as nurses, the identity is an internal sense or individuality, consistency of self, and wholeness.Some stressors affect self-concept.
There are many ways to categorize them.
This can be categorized under the same stressors as body image: surgeries, chronic illnesses, and lastly stressors that result in role performance (Corey (2015)).
Finally, consider the influence of family on the role and self-effect that a child develops.
It is important to note that the family plays an essential role in the growth and developmental of a child.
As an example, children often learn about their family from their parents (Shaw, 2016).
According to the theory, positive effects are created when parents provide support and supervision.
Cultural and familial influences can either be good or bad.
Psychoanalytical, Developmental Theory
There are three main developmental theories. They are interpersonal, psychosocial, and psychoanalytical.
This article will discuss each one and explain how they help nurses make a care plan.
Psychoanalytical deals with personality.
The individual’s character, emotional, behavioral, and mental traits can vary widely and are often unique.
This theory by Sigmund Frud can be used by nurses to create a plan of care by analyzing the development in stages.
The theory suggests that the child’s behavior will be largely determined by Id, and the goal to have the satisfaction of their needs. (Cowden & Cummings 2012).
The child is more attached to their mother than the self and feels a stronger sense of connection.
It could also cause anxiety.
Freud suggests that the inability of distinguishing causes anxiety and can be transmitted to children. They may then feel the same insecurity (Dossey, et al. (2012)).
The Anal stage starts at 18 and goes on to 3 years.
Freud said that this stage is most significant because it involves the person gaining control over their life and becoming independent.
Freud used the example of toilet training to illustrate his point.
Freud suggests that strict and rigid training may lead to the child being destructive, disorganized, and malevolent (Dunphy, et al. (2015)).
However, training that seems permissive will encourage the child be productive, extroverted as well as altruistic.
Freud believes that from 3-6 years old, a child may be oblivious to the desire to exterminate the parent who has had similar sex to him or her and have the parent with the opposite sexual orientation for herself.
These years will see an increase in the superego as blame emotions and subsequent growth of the superego.
This occurs when the child creates an ID with their parent.
The Latency Stage is the fourth and final stage. This occurs between 6-12 years.
These years are when the focus shifts from being egocentric to one that is more interested in learning, socialization, and assembling exercises (Elliott (2015)).
Children show an inclination to associate with people from the same sex but aren’t ready to make bonds with others.
The genitalia stage is the last stage of this theory. This stage focuses on associations with other sex people (Grol et. al., 2013,).
How Psychoanalytic Theory is Helpful in Nursing Care Plan
Doctors in mental health centres can learn more about the structure of identity to aid them.
In order to deal with patients with mental disorders, it helps to have the ability perceive the practices of the id and personality.
When making judgements about maladaptive behavior, it is essential to understand how personality barrier instruments are used (Gross.2015).
Erickson Theory Of Development
Erickson investigated the effect of social procedures on identity improvement.
Erickson identified eight phases in the life cycle where people deal with formative emergencies.
The first stage lasts for 18 months. This is where the child builds trust and can sum up the information with others.
The second stage is 3 years long and the child strives to be more independent and free.
The third stage is late childhood. It takes between 3 and 6 years for the child to develop a sense of reason and be able to think (Karel Gatz & Smyer (2012)).
The next stage starts at age 6, and the child will be able to feel fearless and receive acknowledgment from their peers and other associates.
Additionally, the child should incorporate the lessons learned from previous stages into a safe sense of self.
According to this theory, the person should be able to create an enduring, long-lasting relationship or make a promise for someone else from age 20-30.
From the age of 30 to 65, the focus is on achieving one’s life goals and thinking about the future (Lichtenberg Lachmann, Fosshage 2016).
When a person reaches 65 years old, he/she begins to examine his/her own life and evaluate its value from both a positive as well as a negative perspective (Karel Gatz & Smyer 2012).
There are many things one can learn from this theory, especially in nursing.
Below is a discussion of its application to the formulation of a nursing care program.
Erickson Theory in Nursing Care Plan
Erikson’s theory is particularly pertinent for nursing practice, as it consolidates sociocultural views into the advancement or identity.
Erikson presents a systematic, step-by approach that shows how people feel about or program themselves in order to live a fulfilled life.
This information can be quickly used for nursing care planning as well as mental health planning (Mitchell, & Black,2016).
Patients with psychological problems have trouble achieving what they need in each stage.
This condition can be treated by professionals who will help you live a happy, healthy life.
The Last Theory is Sullivan’s Stages For Personality Development
As with the other theories mentioned, there are several stages that can be used for analysis of personality development and applied to nursing care plans.
The infancy stage, which lasts between 18 and 24 months, is where the child shows a need to perform tasks. (Paley, 2014.
This is either experienced or demonstrated by actions that involve the mouth, such crying, nursing, and thumb sucking.
The next stage, which lasts from 18 months until 6 years old, occurs as the child gets older. This is when the child realizes that an obstruction to the satisfaction of his or her individual wants and needs may cause deferred joy (Townsend, 2014).
The next stage begins at 9 and runs through age 12.
Preadolescence is when the child concentrates on making friends with similar sex. (Rice (2012)
On the other side, the next stage begins at 12 years old and lasts until 16 years. It’s called early adolescence and the child has to work hard at building a character that is unique, independent, and unaffected by guardians (Walton and 2014).
The child may feel the need to associate with people of different sexual orientations.
There’s also the late-adolescence stage. This is when you are between 14 and 21. The period is defined by trying to make a relationship with the general population and having an association with someone from another sex. (Ryckman 2012).
This stage can be identified by the genital organs.
This theory can be used as a basis for a nursing care plan.Sullivan Personality Development And Nursing Care Plan
First, medics can form restorative connections with patients with the aim of helping them connect more effectively with others (Sartre 2015.
The medics also learn about strategies to reduce anxiety and nervousness, and can assist patients in reducing feelings of depression and insecurity.
Sullivan’s Hypothesis is also used by medics to help patients reach a higher level for free and relational working.Case Study
Mr. Mark, a 70-year-old divorcee who lives alone, is an older man.
He divorced his wife, and most of his property was lost.
Many of his traits are that he’s rude and can be very grumpy.
He notes that his personality is often described as disorganized, bored, and isolated.
His children have decided to move out with their mother since the divorce.
His parents have died young, so he has been living with an aunt, whom he describes a hostile person.
Even though there are many things you can do to please him, such as jokes and even tease him at upcoming events, it is hard to please them.
Over the last two decades, people have said that he has been suffering from the divorce and has needed space.
He was diagnosed with the condition two months ago.
He set up a foundation for the benefit of the sick. Unfortunately, funding was insufficient.
He confesses to suffering from depression.
A nurse might look into the background of Mark to find out the reason for his personality.
On closer examination, it is clear that Mark lost one child and that his wife had cheated on him.
You can therefore use the theories to derive different nursing care plans.
Nursing Care Plan
It is necessary
Reasons to interveneGoals Review DateReduce depression
It’s not necessary to let myself down.
Encouragement for one to appreciate his blessings and not his failures.
After one Month
Increase his social life, and improve his organization.
I need to be organized.
Establish a timetable and learn how you can organize your interactions with others.
Making friends, participating in social interactions and organization.
After one Month.
The nursing care plan can benefit from a psychoanalytical/developmental theory.
Particularly, these theories describe the various stages of a person’s growth and development. These stages can be monitored and analysed to help nurses create a great nursing care plan.
Nurses can use the method to describe, appraise, and examine their own development.
It is important that they use positive thinking and apply reality in their work.
The theory highlights the need for nurses to establish trust with patients, clients, or other people when they are interacting with them.
It also assists the nursing care plan in identifying or rather analysing moral reasoning to determine and form the best care plan.
The essay provided insight into what nurses need to consider when assessing patients. It included personal habits, family history and substance abuse.
These are just a few examples of how theories can be used in nursing care plans.
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