NURS3015 Australian Health Care System


Select one theory from the list below and discuss how it applies to nursing practice or nursing care.

Peplau theory

Systems theory

Basic human needs theory

Developmental theory

Psychosocial theory2.

Over the years, Australia’s health care system evolved.a.

Describe the history of Australia’s healthcare system and how it evolved into what we see today.b.

Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current Australian healthcare system.3.

Australia is not the only country suffering from health inequalities.

As economic inequality grows in Western societies, social problems are continuing to surface.a.

Which factors do you think affect an individual’s ability to access health care resources?b.

Define the social determinants and health inequalities that you believe are a problem for those who are most at-risk.

c. Explain the health issues and the implications for the delivery of healthcare for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

d. Identify a health issue facing people in non-western countries and discuss the factors that could impact this issue (consider culture as well as environment, resources, etc. ).4.

You will also have the opportunity to work in different types and settings of healthcare.a.

How would the Enrolled Nurse’s role in the Primary Care Setting differ from their role in acute care?

In your answer, discuss the likely health care team members that the Enrolled nursing would be working alongsideb.

Discuss the philosophy and principles of primary healthcare.

Answer the question and explain how the principles for wellness can be incorporated in nurses care.5.

Discuss the following features, roles and responsibilities of the Australian health system. In your answers, you will discuss the economic and political impacts on health care delivery.a. State vs Federal health care fundingb.

Briefly explain how you would explain Medicare and Private Health Insurance (or any other type of insurance) to a family member.

c. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme6.

Using your own words, describe the roles of the following nursing organizations:a. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia

b. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation7. Select one current health issue in Australia from the National Health Priority Areas as outlined in the following weblink Discuss initiatives that are already in place to address this issue.

Please answer the following questions to identify a suitable support service in Australia for this type of health problem.8.

Choose one non-western approach in healthcare

Please explain how you could incorporate this into the care that is provided to people in the Australian health system.9. Locate the “DMF A4 nursing summary guide – 2010 – rebranded” document from assist you to identify the issues outlined in the following case study:

Tonight, when you report to your shift on the general medical wards, the charge nurses tells that you will be assigned to the orthopaedics ward.

You don’t have previous experience with orthopaedics.

The orthopaedic ward charge nurse will assign you patients who have special techniques for getting out from bed, or who need to be trained in using specialised equipment.

You do not know the techniques or equipment.

The charge nurse informs you that patients can help you understand the equipment.a.

Is it okay to accept the assignment and allow the patients to show you the techniques and equipment?

Two reasons will be given for your answerb.

What are the requirements of the Standard for Practice for Nurses (2016)? Please access this document to assist with your answer

c. How would you proceed?

Provide at least two actions10.

Identify one current health promotion strategy for Australia.

Examples of such strategies are: Quitting smoking, reduced binge drinking, skin awareness.a.

Evaluate the effectiveness this health promotion strategy (i.e.

What’s good/bad about it/does the strategy work?b.

Identify potential risk factors for the health issue that is being promoted by the health promotion strategy. Explain why and which health professionals may be able and able to help.

Answer to Question: NURS3015 Australian Health Care System

Peplau theory is useful in nursing practice. It provides nurses with the opportunity to manage their practice in a systematic way that covers all aspects of client care (Alligood 2014.

It includes four key parts: identification, exploitation, resolution, and orientation.

These four phases are often documented by the nurse and include assessment, nursing diagnosis (planning, implementation, and evaluation) of the patient’s healthcare situation.

These stages will include detailed treatment and evaluation of the nurse’s interventions.2a.

As people became more knowledgeable about various diseases and treatment options, the Australian healthcare system accepted the Biomedical approach in 1870. The preventative model was in place in the early 20th century. The social model arrived in 1970 with WHO (Federation of 2014).

As time passed, researchers and healthcare professionals discovered that each of these models has pros and con’s.

The final years saw the development of a cumulative model that allowed for the acceptance of flaws as well as the inclusion of positive elements in treatment methods. This helped to establish a good treatment approach.b.

Two strengths

Australian healthcare systems use innovative methods to retain skilled healthcare professionals.

The continuous incorporation and use of evidence-based methods in client care ensures that clients receive the best healthcare possible.

Two weaknesses

In areas where health inequalities are high, the social determinants and health of people can have a significant impact on service delivery.

It is still not possible to develop the infrastructure and integrate workers in remote areas. This has made it difficult for indigenous peoples to access healthcare.3a.i.

Financial hardship can prevent the treatment of costly diseases.ii.

Transport in poor condition in remote areas is a barrier to urban health resources.iii.

Cultural bias leads to ineffective service delivery to the indigenous population.b.

Patients are most likely to face health inequalities due to social gradient, early life, stress, and work.

Social exclusion and unemployment, social support, food transport, and addiction of patients (Marmot & Allen 2014.

c. There are a number of healthcare issues that hinder service delivery to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander residents. They include educations barriers, lackof knowledge about health literacy, and inability to understand the disease process or follow correct prevention methods.

Patients with chronic illnesses cannot travel long distances to receive health care.

Healthcare professionals are challenged to provide quality service due to cultural barriers.

d. Migrants arriving from foreign countries face language barriers and bias in the healthcare industry.

Because of their financial instability, they have to deal with high healthcare costs.

The environment in western countries is often not comparable to that in non-western nations, which can lead to them suffering from health disorders.

Due to the stigmatization of Westerners, they also face social exclusion.4.a.


However, some medications might not be allowed to be integrated by her by state legislation.

They are able to supervise the individual and take care of their care.

An enrolled nurse is not allowed to take full responsibility in care planning in an acute care setting.b.

Primary care is the first care that a patient receives in the event of a disorder within his system.

It is based on WHO’s principle that healthy life refers to a life free from any medical, psychological, and cultural issues.

The care is characterized by community control over health care, affordable and accessible technology, health promotion and prevention of disease, and equity in care (Freund. 2015).

Another important principle to be followed is principle of wellbeing. This is an active process which allows patients to take part in activities that will improve their well-being.5.a.


It includes population health programs and health and research, community healthcare services, health infrastructure, and mental health services.

They provide medical care, emergency service, and dental care. (Mossialos und al., 2016, Mossialos).

The federal government provides funding to states and health practitioners subsidizing primary care providers through mediclaims.b.

The Medicare scheme provides free healthcare for Medicare beneficiaries. It allows them to access free hospital care, GPS visits and prescription medication.

Private insurance is for private hospitals. Patients can also receive benefits from the insurers.

The patient might be required to pay for hospital bills that exceed the Medicare benefit.

Private insurances, however, cover more money and the patient has to pay more.

c. Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme is a program that provides medicines free of charge to inmates and to other citizens who need them.

It is part Australia’s larger National Medicines Policy. It has the goal to both meet the economic goals and provide optimal health outcomes for subsidized.6.a.


It is responsible for regulation of the practice and midwifery of nursing in Australia.

b. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation was founded by nurses, midwives and other nursing professionals to improve the industrial, professional and political status of their members.

They are currently dealing with the new threat of Medicare to keep it free for all.7.

The nation’s number one priority is obesity. This disorder has caused a lot of problems and many people have low quality lives as a result.

Australia’s government has published a range of guidelines and policies, which help to raise awareness about obesity among the population.

In order to reach children, awareness goes beyond the adult population.

It is also possible to implement a health promotion program in your state or territory.

The support team includes nurses, doctors, psychologists. Physiotherapists.8.

Acupuncture refers to a traditional eastern treatment that relies on the sensation of pain.

It is a Chinese treatment that involves inserting needles into the patients’ bodies (O’Sullivan 2016, 2016).

It is now accepted in Australian culture, although it is still under investigation by researchers.9.a.


The first is that the nurse should have complete knowledge about the entire treatment and care.

The patient may not be able to adequately describe the situation.

Unskilled nursing can lead to poor patient health.

Secondly the nurse may be unsure of her abilities and conduct a bad procedure. This could result in her being unable to follow the principle non maleficence or beneficence.b.

The enrolled nursing student will be unable to meet standard 9. This will prevent her from practicing safe nursing.

She will be unable to adhere to the quality improvement guidelines. These standards ensure that she provides safe and competent services to her patients.

Because she lacks knowledge and skills, standard 6 will not be followed. She will not provide skilled care.

If she is not able to demonstrate her accountability or responsibility for the improper practices that led to the situation, then Standard 3 will make her accountable.

c. I would make it clear to the registered nurses about the negative aspects that come with her decisions. It also mentions that her delegation may result in legal obligations for both of us.

I would ask her to train me and not the patient.10.a.


It offers many strategies that smokers may use to stop smoking (Halperm (2015)).

It is a great way to raise awareness.b.

It could lead to lung disease from smoking, including COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Cardiothoracic (chest surgeon), carer and nurses are available to help any patient suffering from a health issue.References:Alligood, M. R. (2014).

Nursing theorists. Elsevier Health Sciences.Federation, A. (2014).

A brief history of Australia’s medical education and training.Freund, T., Everett, C., Griffiths, P., Hudon, C., Naccarella, L., & Laurant, M. (2015).

Skill mix and roles in the primary healthcare workforce: Who is the global population of healthcare professionals who work in primary care?

International journal nursing studies 52(3), 727-743.Halpern, S. D., French, B., Small, D. S., Saulsgiver, K., Harhay, M. O., Audrain-McGovern, J., … & Volpp, K. G. (2015).

Randomized trial of four financial incentives for smoking cessation.

New England Journal of Medicine. 372(22), 2108-2117.Marmot, M., & Allen, J. J. (2014).

(2014).Mossialos, E., Wenzl, M., Osborn, R., & Anderson, C. (2016).

2015 International Profiles of Health Care Systems.

The Commonwealth Fund.O’sullivan, J., Del Mar, C., Barnes, A., & Marron, L. J. (2016).

Acupuncture Australia.

Focus on Alternatives to and Complementary Therapies. 21(1), 22-24.Rahman, A., & Harding, A. (2013).

There are some causes and consequences to the rising obesity epidemic in Australia.

JP Journal of Biostatistics 10, 1, 31.Scanlon, A., Cashin, A., Bryce, J., Kelly, J. G., & Buckely, T. (2016).

The complex nature of defining the nurse practitioner scope in practice in Australia. Collegian, 23(1), 129-142.Seo, Y. S., Son, Y. L., & Jung, C. Y. (2015).

Mediation Effect of nursing competence between transformational leadership and organizational commitment of nurses in hospitals.

Journal of Korean Clinical Health Science. 3(3): 419-426.