NUST08011 Nursing Care And Decision Making


(1)This worksheet will require you to provide feedback on Dan’s homeostatic control mechanism during increased activity. Dan is running a 5 mile run.

During the run, Dan’s heart rate is 154bpm. His respiration rate is increased to 50 breaths per minute. His temperature rises up to 39?C.

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There is an increase of cellular respiration, and energy consumption.

Analyse each of the physiological readings. Include in your analysis a discussion about the normal homeostatic regulation mechanisms for each.

(2) Determine the effect of acute glomerulonephritis in relation to the kidney structure, function, and osmoregulation.

(3) Third-degree cuts are full-thickness, encompassing the entire thickness of your skin.

Discuss the effects of this serious injury upon the normal functioning of the skin and its structures.

Consider the effects that hypothermia can have on the body. Pay attention to how the body works within the normal temperature range.

Answer to Question: NUST08011 Nursing Care And Decision Making

Homeostatic regulation takes place when the activity increases. Cell receptors detect the signal and send a message to the control center.

Waterhouse (2013).

Dan experienced three physiological changes while running 5 miles on a road. The first was an increase in his heart rate to 150 beats per minute. This is due to the adrenaline hormones being stimulated by the brain while running.

The impulses were sent to sympathetic nerves’ nervous system branch, then to the heart and other organs. In effect, the heart begins to beat faster in order to meet the high blood pressure and minerals. (Waterhouse 2013, 2013).

Second, the increase in the respiration rate is from normal 12-20 to 50 respirations per hour to 50.

It is then followed by sending the message to “medulla”, the center of respiration, to increase respiration and increase oxygen. This will release excess carbon dioxide and restore normal oxygen levels (Waterhouse, 2013).

Third, Dan’s body temperatures rise from 37°C to 39°C due to greater blood circulation to the skeletal muscles. This blood supply is sufficient to provide high levels of energy and oxygen to other skin cells. This results in an increase in body temperature (Waterhouse, 2013).

After running five miles, the cells of your body activate a control mechanism that restores you to normal.

Dan was helped by adrenaline hormone, or fight response hormone. Once it has finished, the level goes down and impulses produced by sympathetic nerves also die. Thus, the heart rate drops to normal.

Because it lowers the oxygen requirement in food break down to produce energy, the respiration speed decreases. After the activity ceases, the respiration pace returns to normal. When the increased activity has stopped the rate of metabolic activity decreases, thereby causing lowering of body temperature(Waterhouse, 2013)..2.

Glomerulonephritis acute can be described as inflammation of the glomerular regions and cellular proliferation due to the mechanism. The name refers to an event that lasts only a few minutes.

Non-steroidal drug abuse and infection are two possible causes of this condition.

A glomerulus is composed of a number of nerve endings and small blood vessels. It is found at the end of a tubule in the kidney.

We all know that the basic cells of the kidney are the nephron. They regulate and purify the body’s water-ions balance.

The glomerulus is composed of a cup-like structure called the “Bowmen capsule”, which contains a lot blood capillaries. The renal tubule receives fluid from this part (Gattone 2009). The indicators of leukocyte proliferation are the presence of monocytes and neutrophils.The thickening of the membrane of glomerular basement appears secondary to the complex process of immune response(Glomerulonephritis with Neulasta, 2015).

Hyalinization refers to the act of eating self-immune tissues.

The kidney may grow up to half its original size, compared with a normalbean-shaped one that measures 11 cm in the region of the posterior and lumbar. (Diadyk (2016)

Changes in kidney function include a high level of protein and blood in the urine known as hematuria. There was also a decrease in Glomerular Filtration Speed (i.e. Oligoanuria), reductions in RBC Casts and RBC contributions to active urine sediment.

Glomerulus acts to filter the blood, allowing water and ions to be removed into Bowmen’s capsule. It also retains macromolecules.

It receives blood directly from the efferent blood vessel.

A decrease in GFR causes increased retention of nephron sodium and water. This can lead to high blood pressure, pH imbalance, expansion of intravascular vessel volumes, and increase in urine production. ADH hormone levels may also influence how much or how little the volume of urine is produced.

The glomerulus is not able to maintain the proper water-ion balance. This can be caused by cell proliferation in the capillaries.

There is a possibility of excessive fluid buildup and salt accumulation in the blood. This can be caused by dysfunction of your glomerulus (Ponticelli, Glassock 2009).

ADH hormone helps to balance water levels and the capillaries also help to develop osmoticpressure.

If the water level is high, the osmotic force decreases which causes a decrease in ADH production which results in more water being excreted.

Osmotic pressure increases when there is less liquid. This leads to an increase of ADH hormone which decreases water excretion from the vessels. The sodium ion is regulated by the release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex when the concentration of potassium ions increases in the blood and helps to manage blood pressure and blood volume.Glomerulonephritis disturbs and reduces the secretion of ADH and aldosterone thereby resulting in undesirable changes in the process of osmoregulation(Melnyk, 2016).3.

Doctors indicate that third-degree burns occur when the body is burned at 50 percent.

Basaran, et al. 2008: The skin is composed of layers of cells as well as tissues.

It includes epidermis, the outermost layer that is thin and contains many layers including Stratum Corneum which is made up keratin protein, Stratum Lucidum which is a layer transparent cells, Stratum Granulosum which is a layer of granular cell, Stratum Spinosum as well as Stratum Germanitivum which, in turn, contains deepest cells.

Each layer has its own function and appearance in the body.

Third-degree burns result in the destruction of most layers.

Third-degree skin burns can result in the loss of the epidermis or top dermis.

It covers the skin’s burns on hands, feet (groin), face, or genital.

It can also cause burns to the underlying muscles and tendons as well as bone damage (L, 2016).

The nerves damaged by burns caused a minimal sensation at the area of injury.

The skin appears pale and disfigured.

The burning pain can make the victim pale, anxious and confused.

It causes rapid drops in blood pressure that can result in pallor, cold extremities and eventually, collapse.

It also causes fluid loss from the circulation. This means that fluids are not only lost in the cells being destroyed, but also leak from the damaged area.

This causes a disturbance in the potassium and sodium levels, which in turn results in changes to the osmotic imbalance of body fluids.

Burnt skin cannot fight infection, protect, heat regulate, the production and secretion of vitamin D, melanin, elimination etc. (L., 2016).

Third-degree burns to skin can result in severe skin damage.

Cold and heat, as well as other environmental factors, have an impact on the cardiovascular organs.

A hyperthermia, which is an elevation in the body temperature from approximately 36.5°C to 39°C, leads to a doubled output of the cardiacorgans.

The brain’s temperature control center is activated when this happens. In this situation, the skin’s thermal receptors and nerves trigger the release of heat by sending impulses to the nerves.

Vasodilation causes the body to lose heat through radiation heat. The skin’s vasodilation can lead to sweating. This mechanism helps the body to restore its normal temperature gradually(Waterhouse, 2013).

Some risk factors, such as age and diabetes, may lead to lower resistance to heat stress.

Increased heat stress resistance can be caused by diabetes and old age.

Hypothermia refers to a decrease in internal body temperature between 37 and 34 degrees C. It is caused by thermal receptors sending impulses back to the brain. As a result, blood vessel constriction or constriction occurs to reduce heat loss and preserve heat.

The respiratory rate is affected by this (Doshi and Giudici 2015.

Refer to

Basaran K. and Bicer A.. Beskardes Y. and Ermis I. (2008).

What is third-degree heat? A fried egg? Burns, 34(3), pp.428-429.

Diadyk O. and Nekrasova L., Taran O. Taran O. Siroshtanova I., Kominko L. (2016)

Acute Glomerulonephritis. Clinical and Pathologic Features. (Case Record). KIDNEYS, 0(1.15), p.89.

Doshi H. and Giudici M. (2015).

The EKG during hypothermia/hyperthermia.

Journal of Electrocardiology. 48(2). pp. 203-209.Gattone, V. (2009).

Kidney Structure & Function.

Microscopy and Microanalysis. 15, S2, pp.74-75.

Glomerulonephritis treated with Neulasta (2015).

The Pharmaceutical Journal.

L, B., C, I., BH, K, D, T. (2016).

Third degree burns from a MRI-conditional electrocardiographic monitoring device.

Journal of Radiology and Imaging. 1(4). pp. 29-32.

E. Makhova. G. Vikhodseva. L. Novicova. (2016).

Evaluation of Disorders Of Hemostasis And Functional State Of The Kidneys. Renal Hemodynamics In Children with Nephrotic Syndrom Of Acute Glamerulonephritis.

V Mire Nauchnykh Otkrytiy (0(2)), P.40.Melnyk, O. (2016).

Hemostatic System, and its Regulation in Disorders Of Renal Function. KIDNEYS, 0(3.17), p.57.

Ponticelli C. and Glassock R.

Treatment of primary Gumulonephritis. 1st ed.

Oxford University Press.VanDeVoorde, R. (2015).

Acute Poststreptococcal Glamerulonephritis – The Most Common Acute Glomerulonephritis.

Pediatrics in Review. 36(1). pp.3-13.Waterhouse, J. (2013).

Homeostatic controls mechanisms. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 14(7), pp.291-295.Watkins, J. (2013).

Part 1 of Skin rashes: Skin structure and taking a skin history.

Practice Nursing 24(1), pp.30–33.