PSYC 384 Forensic Psychology


Write a report focusing on the topic of “Sexual Offender Treatment Program Efficacy”

Answer to Question: PSYC 384 Forensic Psychology

These are individuals who have committed a sexual offense.

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These crimes are most often influenced by the legal jurisdictions and cultures.

Maximum Jurisdictions have divided their constitutions into sections, such as sexual, assault and traffic.

The maximum number of sexual offenders that have been found guilty of crimes of asexual nature have been sentenced.

Some of these sexual offenders have also broken the law on sexual category.

The only crimes that lead to an obligatory sex offender classification are prostitution conviction, sexting or exchanging dirty material in text messages.

Other serious sexual offences include child abuse and statutory rape.

Treatments for sexual offenders are both challenging and motivating. The main focus is on learning specific strategies for stopping abusive behavior and being accountable for any harm done.

Treatment for them is distinct from that of adults.

The purpose of treatment for sexual offenders in prison is to assist them in creating a better life by building on their strengths and managing risks.

The purpose of this essay is to discuss the efficacy of treatment programs for sexual offenders.

Treatment programs for sexual offenders are mostly effective. These include cognitive behavioral method and classical behavioral. Insight oriented and hormonal medications, mental castration, faith-based treatments, therapeutic communities, intensive supervision, and medical castration.

Cognitive-Behavioral therapy, or CBT (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy) – This therapy takes place in a group setting. It involves confronting the irrational and limiting beliefs of the sexual offenders. This leads them to engage in their antisocial behaviors.

CBT programs can also help offenders change their negative thoughts and behavior by giving them opportunities to practice and improve their problem-thinking and prosocial skills.

CBT can be used to treat sexual offenders by most therapists. Therapists can observe and analyze the thoughts, feelings, as well as the situations that led to the offender becoming a serial offender.

Through this program, sexual offenders learn to control their sexual impulses and behaviors.

This program focuses on the therapist as a directive and reality-based person who is aiming at the current situation rather than looking into childhood issues, which may or not be relevant to the offending activity.

As such, the first role of the therapist is to carry out a task-oriented activity that is accountable and geared towards restrainting offender’s problematic behaviors.

The CBT for Sexual Offenders can be classified into three distinct stages.

Identifying the problem: This stage requires close examination and supervision. This allows the clinician to guide the client to identify the specific behaviors that may indicate a problematic sexual motive.

Behavioral contracting- this stage is where both the client along with the clinician collaborate to determine if there are any sexual issues they need to address.

Additionally, contracts could include tasks which encourage alternative coping mechanisms such journaling, check-in phone calls and, finally, attendance at 12-step meeting.

Relapse prevention- The clinician works with the client to identify higher and lower patterns of events as well interactions that can push an individual toward the offending behavior.

The treatment of sexual offenders can often require demands that are not possible to meet within an intimate therapeutic relationship.

For long-term behavioral change, the sexual offenders need both external reinforcement and support.

Group therapy is most effective for sexual offenders.

The facilitated group setting allows offenders to recognize that they aren’t the only one with the same problems. They can also reduce their guilt, shame and deep regret.

They can also face their denials and justify their actions using the therapy in-group setting (Schmucker & Losel 2015.

This confrontation is essential for the person being confronted as well as the other group members who are executing the confronting.

This allows people to see how internal rationalizations foster and support sexual offenders.Psychotherapy/counseling-The treatment programs that are incorporated in this category are insight-oriented therapy, which can be done individually or in-group settings.

These programs often use traditional therapy methods like talk therapy to examine the repressed thoughts and causes that are associated with offending behavior.

These programs can be either generalized or tailored for specific sex offenders.

Insight-oriented Psychotherapy – This therapy is based upon the assumption that offenders will operate more effectively if they have a better understanding of themselves.

Better functioning refers to the reduction or elimination of symptoms in sexual offenders.

Insight-oriented therapy focuses mainly on explaining to offenders why they act the way that they do, and elucidating their motivations (Rosenberg. Carnes & O’Connor (2014)).

This therapy shows people that they have an inner world. And it explains how that world works.

It allows the offenders to self-knowledge and, most importantly, it grants them freedom.

Medical treatment – There have been many approaches that have been used to reduce the risk of sexual offenses and to treat the sex offender.

Medical treatments consist primarily of hormonal therapy or surgical castration.

However, this surgical castration is only possible through voluntary participation.

This treatment combines medical intervention with additional psychological treatment. If the sexual offenders stop taking hormones, they will still receive the same type treatment.

Surgical casting- This is when the testes of a male sex offender are removed surgically. It results in their permanent loss.

Surgery castration is used to infertility males and lower sexual urges.

However, surgical casting laws are not mandatory in every state. Instead, chemical castrations can be allowed for sexual offenders. They will receive repeated injections with a drug that reduces testosterone to pre-puberty levels (Lee & Cho (2013)).

Hormonal Therapy-A number of hormonal agents have been suggested to be used as pharmacological remedies for sexually abused offenders. Main examples involve medroxyprogesterone acetate, theleuprolide acetate, cyproterone acetate, and lastly, gonadotropin-supplying hormone analog.

These chemical agents, also known as antiandrogens work by destroying and removing testosterone. It also stops the production pituitary hormone, which then obstructs the testosterone production.

Because testosterone is associated with sexual arousal, these agents can be used to decrease sexual arousal.

This decrease in sexual arousal can be used to reduce motivation for sex offenses and the likelihood of them committing such behavior.

The treatment programs for sexual offenders currently include the therapist and other trained practitioners. Their goal is to empower the offenders to take control over their actions, as well as address and medicate any co-existing disorders.

The therapists work closely with the offenders to make them aware of their mistakes and help them document and advocate for the court about the risk each of them might pose to the community.

The eligibility of sexual offenders to be part of the treatment program depends on several factors such as their willingness, level of risk, severity of the crime, and availability of the slot.

As a condition or requirement for their conviction, those sentenced as sexual offenders receive treatment.

The treatment of sexual offenders can take place in the community or in a secure location such as a prison or mental hospital (Brown and 2013).

Some treatment for sexual offenders is not compulsory, but it will be available to those who are willing to accept it.

In addition, treatments may be available for sexual offenders that are intended to treat general sexually offensive behavior.

Some treatment is provided to violent offenders as well as those at high risk.

It has been observed that the resources of many countries may not allow for special treatment programs for sexual offender. Instead, they can receive therapies that are generalized.

It is clear that although most of the sexual offenders are adults it has been observed that there is a noticeable percentage of those who are younger than 18years.

It is important to note that Juveniles accept sexual offences and can see a link between sexual offenses during childhood, adolescence, or later in life. The therapeutic programs for children have been the first line of defense for managing sexual offenders across all Jurisdictions (Pullman & Seto 2012.).

The treatment options for juveniles who have been incarcerated for sexual offences since 1970s has changed.

The treatment plans for juvenile sexual offenders had been largely based upon models similar to that used for adult sex offenders (Nolan & Maguire (2016)).

Because of increased knowledge regarding the developmental, motivational and behavioral differences of juvenile and adult sex offenders, therapeutic interventions are easier to provide for juveniles.

However, sexual offenders who receive treatment are less likely relapse than those without treatment.

It is clear that not all treatments work equally well on all sexual offenders.

While treatment methods that were used before 1980 had a lower effect on offenders, current treatments result in a significant decrease in sexual and general recidivism. (Wakeling Beech & Freemantle (2013)

The effectiveness of treatment programs in the community is comparable to that provided in institutions.

Therefore, offenders who cannot complete their treatment are more likely to relapse than those that have completed it.

However, studies have shown that organic therapies such as surgical castration and hormonal medication are perceived to have more positive effects than the psychosocial interventions.

Cognitive behavioral approaches was also found to be the most effective of all psychosocial interventions.

The effect of non-behavioral therapy is not significant.

Effective treatment programs not only affect sexually motivated complicated behaviors but also have a larger impact on criminality (Yates 2013).

According to this essay, the majority of sexual offenders are people who have been found to commit sex crimes.

This essay lists the most effective treatment options for sexual offenders. These include cognitive behavioral methods, classical behavioral, insight oriented, hormonal medication, medical castingration, faith-based treatments, therapeutic communities, intensive supervision, and traditional behavioral therapy.

CBT, which also falls under the treatment plan, is an effective tool for teaching sexual offenders ways to change their sexual thoughts and behavior.

Children, or adolescents, who are younger than 18 years old have been shown to have committed sex-related crimes.

So, treatment for the juveniles and the adult sex criminals are very different.

While these treatments used to be ineffective for sex offenders, they are now effective.

These problematic behaviors could also be replaced by offenders who cannot complete their treatments. This is in contrast to the case with those who have completed their treatment.

ReferencesBradford, J. M., Fedoroff, P., & Gulati, S. (2013).

How can sexual offenders be treated?

International journal for law and psychiatry. 36(3), 235–240.Brown, S. (2013).

Sex offenders and treatment: An introduction. Routledge.Groth, A. N., & Birnbaum, H. J. (2013).

The psychology of the rape victim. Springer.Ho, D. K., & Ross, C. C. (2012).

Cognitive behavior therapy for sex offenders.

Too good to believe?

Criminal Behaviours and Mental Health, 22(1). 1-6.Lee, J. Y., & Cho, K. S. (2013).

Doctors’ views on chemical castration in sexual offenders.

Journal of Korean medical Science, 28(2) 171-172.Marshall, W. L., Fernandez, Y. M., Hudson, S. M., & Ward, T. (Eds.). (2013).

Sourcebook for treatment programs for sexual offenders.

Springer Science & Business Media.Nolan, T., & Maguire, M. (2016).

Treatment for Sex Offenders.

402. Sex and Sexuality.Pullman, L., & Seto, M. C. (2012).

Assessment and treatment adolescents of sexual offenders: Implications based on recent research on generalist versus specialty explanations.

Child abuse & neglect. 36(3), 203-209.Rosenberg, K. P., Carnes, P., & O’Connor, S. (2014).

Evaluation and treatment of sex abuse.

Journal of sex- and marital Therapy, 40(2). 77-91.Schmucker, M., & Losel, F. (2015).

The effect of treatment for sexual offenders on recidivism: A global meta-analysis sound quality evaluations.

Journal of Experimental Criminology. 11(4), 597–630.Wakeling, H., Beech, A. R., & Freemantle, N. (2013).

A study of the effects of treatment change on recidivism in 3773 UK sex offender sex criminals. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19(3), 233-252.Yates, P. M. (2013).

Treatment of sexual offenders – Research, best practices and emerging models.

International Journal of behavior consultation and therapy, 8(3)-4, 89.

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