Create an APA-formatted, research review article about one topic in global health for this assessment.
Identify your topic.
Give background information on the topic. Include statistics and maps, as well as the most common health care problems associated with the topic.
The factors that influence health and delivery of healthcare in the most affected areas worldwide are described.
These factors may not only include culture and tradition but also politics and economics as well.
Explain the role of altruistic organisations (Peace Corps. Project Hope. Religious and non-religious Missions. etc.) in health and health care practices within the global area directly related to this topic.
The interventions you have used to address health care concerns associated with this topic are described.
Be sure to include both conventional and non-conventional interventions.
Discuss how the health care decisions made at the local level (the region most affected by this topic) impact health and the delivery of healthcare in other regions.
This includes not only best practices but also poor care decisions and practices.
Identify evidence-based intervention options that are efficient, cost-effective and equitable to promote wellness and prevent disease in the area.
Answer to Question: PUBH6304 Global Health
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Virus Infection (HIV/AIDS), or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is a combination of medical conditions caused by the suppression of the immune system.
As the disease progresses, the patient may develop infections such as tuberculosis and other opportunistic conditions.
These symptoms can develop late and are known as AIDS.
HIV is spread through sexual intercourse that is not protected, contaminated hypodermic needles and blood transfusions from mother to child.
Because there is no effective treatment, HIV is a major public health concern.
There is no cure nor vaccine.
But, antiviral treatment might slow down the progression (Liamputtong, 2015).
HIV-related deaths were estimated at 1.1 million in 2015. Around 36.7million people were reported to be living with HIV/AIDS in 2015.
Most of the people affected by the disease are from sub Saharan Africa.
This is due to a lack of resources and health care for individuals.
In this region, there is also a lack of nutrition.
For most people, the education level is low.
A large percentage of the population does not know about the preventive measures for the disease.
According to UNESCO’s Regional overview of sub-Saharan Africa 2000, 52% children were enrolled into primary schools. This was the lowest enrollment rate for any region.
In 1981, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States (CDC) first identified AIDS.
It is estimated that AIDS caused 39 million deaths globally between the time it was discovered and 2014.
In the United States alone, almost 40,000 HIV-positive persons were diagnosed in 2015.
The most affected were gay and bisexual people in 2015 (avert.org 2016).
USA currently has about 1.2million HIV-infected citizens.
Although the number of people infected is relatively small, it does not reflect the entire country’s population.
But, the epidemic is very concentrated in many of the most vulnerable populations.
AIDS-related disease has led to approximately 675,000 deaths across the US.
Liamputtong (2015) opined that HIV/AIDS has a large impact on the society both as a cause of discrimination, and as a chronic illness.
The economic consequences of the disease are significant. Religious views have been a source of controversy.
It has attracted the attention both of medical researchers and social workers who seek to lower the disease’s social and health burden.
Mondol & Shitan (2013) say that HIV/AIDS prevalence is a problem for human society.
Global HIV prevalence is closely linked to a variety of social factors, including the density of physicians, contraceptive prevalence, adolescents and proportions of certain religions, education levels, schooling, and schooling.
Edwards & Collins (2014) stated that HIV is more common in black women than in other countries. They cite social determinants that are part of their cultural backgrounds.
The major social determinants that impact women’s vulnerability include disadvantages related to race, gender and geographic location.
Additionally, many of the barriers are overlapping and can provide unique results that can have a profound impact on sexual behaviours and decision making.
Social science research has revealed that behavioural changes are not effective in keeping the infection away. Individual behaviours at risk due to infection can be attributed to complex cultural or social contexts.
Cognitive processes, rational factors and peer pressure are all factors that can change the decision making patterns of individuals.
A number of obstacles hinder the provision of quality healthcare for HIV/AIDS patients.
A variety of health care organisations play a leading role in HIV prevention, intervention and recovery.
These organisations face formidable obstacles in delivering effective services.
Some organisations are in a good position to provide care for patients. However, communication with the values or beliefs of the communities that they serve is an area where others fall behind.
The barriers to care delivery and prevention can be caused by social, cultural, individual, institutional, and structural patient factors.
The problems require immediate technical assistance (Benton (2015)
Morgan et.al. (2013) emphasized the importance faith-based or altruistic organsiations in providing HIV prevention services and mitigation services.
Altruism refers the collection of values, motivations and practices surrounding the sexual behaviour of an individual that are motivated by concern for others.
This includes protecting your partner from infection, as well as showing concern for your family, friends, or community.
According to the authors, such organizations use social theories to influence individuals’ behavior.
The practice of altruistic organisations using such practices dates back a long way, but the overall responses have been controversial.
This is most apparent in the area of the prevention and rejection to condoms, which conflict with the national HIV/AIDS interventions.
Peace Corps is a well-known organisation working to prevent HIV/AIDS.
Peace Corps volunteers are located in more than 140 countries. For the last five decades they have displayed creativity and ingenuity to address major public health concerns like HIV/AIDS.
The organization has contributed significantly to the fight against HIV.
Volunteers are active in over 9,000 communities. They have assisted 1.3 millions HIV-infected individuals until 2011.
By combining global efforts, the organisation strives to eradicate AIDS.
They are able to partner with other countries for a joint venture.
They are responsible for implementing and managing responses.
They also work with multilateral and bilateral partners in order to increase mobilization.
They celebrate World AIDS Day, which aims to increase awareness and education.
The Peace Corps was responsible for utilizing funds from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief(PEPFAR), in order to extend its HIV-related work in 47 other countries.
These Peace Corps stations in these countries have access to the necessary resources to support their HIV/AIDS programming.
Project HOPE is an important organisation. It aims to improve the lives and well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS as well as those at higher risk.
Services provided include prevention education and medical case management.
A variety of strategies have been used by organizations around the globe to stop HIV’s rapid spread.
These interventions are used either to protect individuals and their communities or are part of public health strategies.
Initial preventive programs were focused on sexual transmission prevention via behavioral changes.
The evidence is abundant and shows that interventions should consider socio-cultural, economic and political factors.
This combination of prevention strategies advocates for a holistic approach where the individual and the community’s needs are met (Magidson 2017).
Cross and Whiteside (2016) assert that HIV/AIDS health care practices in sub-Saharan Africa – a region where HIV/AIDS incidences are high – differ from those in other parts of the globe.
Both Africa and other nations like the US have devised policies to improve quality life and have managed the crisis nearly in the same manner.
However, Africa is behind other countries due to their advanced resources and development.
HIV treatment would have been much easier if countries from the sub-Saharan areas had the same level resources.
Watkins Hayes (2014) offers some excellent evidence that is cost-effective, equitable, and will be effective in fighting HIV.
It is important that individuals are able to determine their HIV status.
Client-initiated HIV testing and counselling can be used to help people know their HIV status. This can also be done with partner and family counseling, HIV testing for the partners, and children and infant counseling.
It would also be a good strategy to maximize the health sector’s contribution towards HIV prevention.
The key points to be covered are education and promotion of condom usage and family planning.
The prevention of HIV spread would also be possible with nutritional support.
It can be achieved through regular assessments of the nutritional status and diet as well education.
Affordable interventions will only become possible if sufficient research is done to study the link between HIV status, socio-economic factors and health.
As we come to the end, we see that the increase in the incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS (HIV/AIDS) around the world has slowed down progress towards human civilisation.
The epidemic is a grave concern.
This is due to the fact that HIV/AIDS is extremely prevalent in many parts of the globe.
International organizations need to increase the number in care workers in countries most affected by HIV/AIDS and offer training and education to reduce its impact.
Refer toAbara, W., Coleman, J. D., Fairchild, A., Gaddist, B., & White, J. (2015).
A faith-based community partnership to tackle HIV/AIDS within the southern United States: Implementation and challenges. Lessons learned.
Journal of religion, health, 54(1).Benton, A. (2015).
University of Minnesota Press.Cross, S., & Whiteside, A. (Eds.). (2016).
Facing up To AIDS: The Socio-Economic Impact in Southern Africa Springer.Edwards, A. E., & Collins Jr, C. B. (2014).
Studying the effects of social determinants and HIV risk behaviors on women’s behavior. The potential application of structural intervention to prevent HIV in the future.
Journal of health disparities practice and research, 7(SI2) at 141.
Living with HIV/AIDS, Discrimination, Stigma and Living with HIV/AIDS Springer.Magidson, J. F., Gouse, H., Psaros, C., Remmert, J. E., O’Cleirigh, C., & Safren, S. A. (2017).
Task Shifting in Behavioral Medicine Interventions for Resource-Poor Global Settings. HIV/AIDS Treatment in sub Saharan Africa.
The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of Behavioral Medicine (pp. 297-320).
Springer International Publishing.Mondal, M. N. I., & Shitan, M. (2013).
An ecological analysis based on global data reveals key factors that are causing the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
African health sciences, 13(2). 301-310.Morgan, R., Green, A., & Boesten, J. (2013).
Harmonizing faith-based HIV/AIDS prevention actions with national ones?
Factors that affect the HIV/AIDS prevention policies and the response by faith-based NGOs.
Health policy planning, czt018.Watkins-Hayes, C. (2014).
Intersectionality and HIV/AIDS’ sociology: Past and future research directions.
Annual Review of Sociology. 40, 431-457.