PUBH642 Global Nutrition And Food Security


This assignment will help you develop an intervention strategy to address dual burden households. The strategy will allow you to preserve traditional food systems for a country that is located in one of the following areas: Africa, Asia and South America.

The essay should contain a description on dual burden nutrition, its determinants and epidemiology, as well as a summary and summary of food production statistics.

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The essay should then discuss an intervention strategy that addresses the growing prevalence of dual weight malnutrition.

Answer to Question: PUBH642 Global Nutrition And Food Security

The dual-burden is defined as the co-existence between stunting or undernourishment, or obesity due over nutrition (Varela Silva. et. al. 2012.).

The coexistence is observed in the same group of people as the same population sample, i.e.

belonging to a specific area, ethnicity, or group (Varela Silva et al. 2012).

Additionally, coexistence may be found in the same person, family, or household (Varela Silva et all., 2012).

This phenomenon, known as dual-burden malnutrition, has been primarily observed in underdeveloped countries, developing nations, and low- or medium-income countries.

Research has recently focused on malnutrition and nutritional dual-burden.

The dual-burden of Malnutrition was observed in both low-income and middle-income families (Varela Silva, et. al. (2012)).

Insufficient height and weight growth are two of the most prevalent issues with malnutrition (Varela Silva, 2012).

Children who are overweight often mistakenly believe they have the best nutrition. This can lead to more difficulty in managing the nutritional dual-burden concern.

Research has shown that both underdevelopment of height or being overweight are contrary to the biological nature and development of humans (Varela Silva and al.,2012).

These occurrences cannot be predicted using conventional food systems and nutritional bases (Varela Silva,, 2012).

Dual-burden in nutrition is a pandemic which has only recently been reported to be affecting people throughout the world (Popkin, et al. (2012)).

Popkin, 2012: The current pandemic of obesity has seen rapid development in both the developed and developing worlds (Popkin,, 2012).

Popkin and colleagues (2012) have seen an explosion in the incidence of obesity due to westernization of lifestyle and dietary habits.

The Western world is much less active than the rest.

The phenomenon known as “nutrition transition” is the result of altered dietary patterns.

Popkin, 2012: A change in the dietary pattern, when compared to the regional standard food intake system, results in altered health patterns and eventually leads to obesity.

Popkin and colleagues (2012) discovered that obesity among children and adults is caused by the statistical ratios between the sociodemographic information in terms age, race, ethnicity and region.

Popkin (2012) cites the primary reason for this pandemic as an increase in processed food intake with high levels of fat and low nutritional index.

Guyomard (2012) stresses the need to ensure food security worldwide.

Guyomard (2012) defines food security as the ability to have adequate, nutritious, and safe food available for everyone, whether they are a family or a household.

Guyomard (2012) emphasized that when a nation has food security, it improves its economic and socio-economic status.

Guyomard et. al. (2012) reported that global food security status is very poor.

As with obesity, malnutrition is equally important (De Onis & Blossner (2006)).

The dual-burden approach to nutrition management relies on the fact that there is often both obesity and undernourishment within a particular household or population (De Onis & Blossner (2006)).

Management of this problem becomes increasingly complicated due to the complex nature of these pandemics.

De Onis & Blossner (2006) have noted the rise in health systems that emphasize both under and above-nutrition.

Doak, 2005. It has been shown that dual-burden households pose a health risk to the community and should be addressed.

Doak, 2005. Research has examined the links between dual burden households and living in urban areas.

Scientists speculate that undernourishment is a side-effect from overnutrition prevention programmes for people in the normal weight range (Doak et. al., 2005).

According to literature, there is a statistically significant relationship between obesity and stunting. It also depends on the amount of physical activity and the time spent sleeping in.

Assessment of lifestyle and diet habits are some of the most popular strategies for intervention in dual-burden families.

These interventions include a better diet, increased physical activity and decreased screen time.

Each country or region today faces challenges related to malnutrition, obesity, and dual burden malnutrition (Gillespie & Bold 2017).

Research considers malnutrition to be a multi-layered and multisectoral public health problem that results in complex interactions between each household and national food and agricultural production systems. Also, it affects the decision-making of individuals and households, and systems of environmental health and safety policies.

The article will discuss the dual-burden phenomenon of malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa. It will also provide an analysis on nutrition, food production, dietary patterns, and other aspects of the region.

This article provides a solution to the dual-burden problem of malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa by providing a remedy that addresses both the nutritional transition and retention of traditional food systems.

National Dietary Patterns And Food Production Statistics: Sub-Saharan Africa

Malnutrition refers to various nutritional problems such as obesity, malnutrition, poor nutrition, excessive hunger, micronutrient deficiencies, and excess (Fanzo 2012.

Malnutrition covers both those who are deficient in dietary vitamins and those who are severely malnourished.

In order to assess a child’s health and nutrition, the primary indicators are calories and protein.

Hidden hunger or deficiency among essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, can cause malnutrition and hunger in most people (Fanzo. 2012).

Malnutrition can be caused by the undernourishment of most children.

There is a worldwide pandemic of acute and severe malnutrition (Fanzo (2012).

Wasting can be defined as the presence of a low weight in people of a particular height.

Most cases of wasting result in a large imbalance of the height-weight ratio (Fanzo 2012.

Additional oedema can occur in cases of wasting.

Africa has seen a high rate of child wasting and malnutrition in recent years.

Although there has been some improvement in Africa’s global hunger index since 2010, the overall sub-Saharan African continent is still not showing a great deal of improvement (Lartey, 2008).

Statistically, the Sub-Saharan African area has 100 million or more cases of malnutrition.

1990-92, 150,000,000 approx.

1995-97; 200 millions approx.

in 2000-02; 200 million approx.

It increased in 2009 to approximately 250 million and decreased slightly in 2010 to approximately 210 million (Lartey, 2008).

The Sub-Saharan African Region has the highest percentage of undernourished people at 34%.

in 1990-92; 32% in 2000-02.

1995-97; 30 percent in 2000-02; 28% approximate.

2005-07; 26% approx.

2008: 31% in 2009 and 30% in 2010 roughly (Lartey, 2008).

The current situation in Sub-Saharan Africa demonstrates the absence of effective nutrition and food production strategies.

The continent has seen a rise in malnutrition due to a lack of nutrition and maternal nutritional deficiencies.

The primary objective of eradicating malnutrition is to provide enough micronutrients, as well as ensuring that people consume the minimum amount of calories, according to their age, height, gender and ethnicity (Lartey (2008)).Intervention:

This is the population that includes women who are pregnant and those who care for their babies.

These individuals have a higher level of nutritional nutrient needs, which can lead to a greater nutritional vulnerability (Lartey et al. 2008).

They are less likely to meet their nutritional needs.

There are often insufficient interventions in most countries to address the dual-burden nutritional problem.

Lartey, 2008. Nutritional concerns are especially prevalent in women who are pregnant or nursing.

There is also a high demand for nutrition in infants, as they are at peak development and growth (Lartey, 2008).

According to Lartey (2008), research in Sub-Saharan African populations has revealed that women and children are more at risk of malnutrition because of the region’s climatic and environmental conditions.

Both the women and children of these regions face many economic challenges, which can lead to a deficient nutrition status.

Many studies show a link between the economic and financial situations of households (Gillespie & Bold 2017.)

The interplay of urban lifestyle, socioeconomic, and urban lifestyle factors together with dual-burden households is a significant indicator of the country’s nutritional status (Lartey, 2008).

Research suggests that the Sub-Saharan African area is more susceptible to malnutrition than any other region. This is primarily due poverty, inadequate food systems, and a lack in resources (Fanzo (2012)).

A lack of infrastructure and resources can also increase the risk of many diseases and epidemics.

The population of these areas does not have adequate access to health care (Fanzo, 2012).Africa, despite these challenges in nutrition and resource-availability, has managed to make remarkable progress in the management of the pandemic of malnutrition.

In these areas, the most critical interventions, which few are currently being practiced, include promotion of health, nutrition, and a focus on regional traditional food systems, practices, and methods (Fanzo 2012.

The Sub-Saharan African Region’s intervention for malnutrition focuses on spreading awareness about the importance nutrition plays in human development and growth (Fanzo 2012.

Promotion of the physiological basis for nutrition as a critical element for growth and development must be done.

An additional important aspect of the intervention is the preservation of African food habits.

The intervention also promotes hygiene and optimal child feeding practices (Fanzo, 2012).

Fanzo, 2012 states that intervention should be focused on the nation’s agriculture and food production systems.

The most important reason for dual-burden is the rapid nutrition transition in many nations (Fanzo. 2012).

The Western lifestyle has made it more difficult to produce food locally due to altered food needs.

Poverty and the lack of micronutrients and food for adults in Sub-Saharan regions are major factors that lead to malnutrition pandemics.

Thus, the intervention is primarily focused on the nutrition transition and inability to find conventional food systems for this region.

Improved agricultural and food production is essential for the promotion of micronutrients supply to infants (Fanzo 2012.

According to the Lancet series about undernutrition (2008) (Fanzo,2012), stunting, malnutrition, and lack of hygiene and health awareness are all closely linked to the inability to supply micronutrients to mothers and babies, food fortification techniques and acute absence from feeding in therapeutic interventions.

The success rate of interventions that are aimed at eliminating malnutrition within the Sub-Saharan region is greatly helped by the contribution of the food sector.

Fanzo, 2012. The evidence collected in these regions should be used to determine the core interventions to be applied in these areas.

Lancet studies also recommended in 2008 that a multi-sectoral approach be used and that interventions are sensitive to nutritional needs be included (Fanzo. 2012).

The interventional approach encompasses the following sectors: education, agriculture, social and healthcare, and the food industry (Fanzo. 2012).

These strategies must be part of the intervention.

Integration of farming techniques and systems that combine aquamarine, horticulture and raising of poultry and livestock. These are all consumable nutrition systems.

These systems must be able to combine and integrate techniques to reduce wastage, and cost-cutting strategies to inputs in the agricultural industry to increase the range of products available to the food industry (Fanzo 2012.

These are the communication systems that help spread information and education about nutrition and marketing strategies.

These marketing interventions should be focused on strengthening local food production, and the promotion and cultivation of foods rich in micronutrients (Fanzo – 2012).

The development of better techniques for managing products that are harvested after harvest.

These strategies encompass the storage, food processing, transformation, production, preservation, and distribution of food products.

These strategies are designed to protect the safety and quality of the product and reduce its loss of nutrients.

Interventions that promote economic and business development to improve employment opportunities for women. This helps eradicate poverty or the lack of resources

Improved financial and medical statuses for women to aid children

Access to various services such as antenatal care and reduced workload for pregnant mothers and new mothers.

Facilities that are better suited for maternal nutrition and education, immunizations or vaccinations, financial secutrity, and general health services

Access to safe food, water, and improved hygiene in the general community

The interventions listed above are designed to eliminate the root causes of the dual-burden Malnutrition Pandemic.References:

Fanzo J (2012).

The Nutrition Challenge of Sub-Saharan Africa. Working paper, United Nations development programme, Regional Bureau of Africa.

Retrieved on, S. & Bold, M.V.D. (2017).

Agriculture, Food Systems, Nutrition: Meeting the challenge Global challenges, 1(3) Retrieved from, G. & Ziade, F. (2017).

The Dual Burdens and Lifestyle Habits that Lead to Malnutrition among Lebanese School-Age Kids Living in North Lebanon Orphanages. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 1-12 Retrieved from Onis, M. & Blossner, M. (2000).

Prevalence and Trends in Overweight among Preschoolers in Developing Countries.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 72, 1032-1039. Retrieved from, C.M., Adair, L.S., Bentley, M., Monteiro, C., & Popkin, B.M. (2005).

The dual burden household and nutrition transition paradox. Int J Obes, 29(1), 129-36 Retrieved from, A. (2008).

(2008). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 67, 105-108 Retrieved from, B.M., Adair, L.S., & Ng, S.W. (2012).

NOW AND THEN : The Global Nutrition Transition: The Pandemic in Obesity among Developing Countries. Nutr Rev., 70(1), 3-21Retrieved from, I. (2012).

Double burden from malnutrition: An invisible driver in double burden of diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. Jogh, 2(2), 1-6 Retrieved from, B. (2005).

A Nutrition Paradox — Unhealthy nutrition in developing countries. N engl j med., 352(15), 1514-1516 Retrieved from, M.I.

et al. (2012). Nutritional Dual-Burden in Developing Countries. Coll. Antropol., 36(1), 39-45 Retrieved from

Guyomard H. Darcy Vrillon, B.. Esnouf C. Marin M. Russel M. and Guillou M. (2012) Eating habits and food systems: essential knowledge requirements for policy design. Agriculture & Food Security, 1(13), 1-21 Retrieved from, C. & Gibson, R.S. (2007).

Traditional food-processing and traditional preparation practices can be used to increase micronutrient bioavailability in plant-based diets. J Nutr, 137(4), 1097-1100. Retrieved from, M., Rocchigiani, M. & Garrett, J. (2008).

Ethiopia Case Study, Empowering communities through food-based programmes: Discussion Paper.

Washington DC International Food Policy Research InstituteDe Onis, M., Blossner, M. & Borghi, E. (2012).

Prevalence and trends for stunting among preschool children, 1990-2020. Public Health Nutrition, 15(1), 142-148 Retrieved from, S. (2010).

Consumer oriented movements in France: from consumerism to the empowerment and empowerment of consumers. Sustainability, 2, 1849-1868. Retrieved from F., O’Flaherty, M., Mwatsama, M., Birt, C., Ireland, R., & Capewell, S. (2008).

Estimating the cardiovascular death burden due to Common Agricultural Policy on dietary high-fat fats. Bull World Health Org, 86, 535-542 Retrieved from, E. (2008).

However, corn prices have reached a record high. What about food costs? Amber Waves, 6, 10-15 Retrieved from, S., Negra, C., Barnett, P., Clark, M., Harch, B., & Keating, B. (2012).

Food price volatility and hunger reduction – can Cannes work for you? Agric Food Secur, 1, 8 Retrieved from, S., Cohen, D. A., Brown, A., & Asch, M. (2009).

Body mass index, neighbourhood food and restaurant concentration, as well as car ownership. J Urban Health, 86, 683-695 Retrieved from, S., Negra, C., Barnett, P., Clark, M., Harch, B., & Keating, B. (2012).

Food price volatility and hunger reduction – Cannes works?

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