Conduct a systematic review to determine the factors that impact pharmaceutical expenditures.
Answer to Question: PUBHLTH3124 Health Promotion III
Recent research shows that there has been an increase in demand for healthcare services due to changes in the demographics, the appearance of many new diseases and the differences in the quality of care provided by different populations.
This situation has led to changes in technology and structure in the health system (Mousnad Shafie and Ibrahim, 2014).
Pharmaceutics are a key component in improving the overall health of a community.
However, an increase in pharmaceutical expenses has caused economic problems.
Therefore, it is crucial to devise effective strategies to deal with the increasing cost of pharmaceuticals and provide health care services in a timely manner (Schumock and colleagues, 2016).
The study seeks to identify the contributing factors to the rise in pharmaceutical expenditure.
The identification of the factors may help to develop effective strategies to address these issues and reduce the economic impact on pharmaceuticals.Methodology:
This systematic review is used to identify factors that may have caused an increase in pharmaceutical expenditure.
The systematic review was conducted by identifying relevant papers from well-researched databases. It then analyzed the evidence in the literatures to arrive at the conclusion.
Data sources such as Google scholar (MEDLINE), MEDLINE, CINAHL or PubMed were used to collect data on the factors that led to an increase in pharmaceutical expenditure.
Relevant literatures from the period 2012-2018 have been identified. Only literatures in English were considered for systematic review.
To identify relevant prior literatures, we used key terms such as: factors affecting drug expenditures; trends in drug expenditures; hospital costs for pharmaceutical expenses, and other pertinent information.
Criteria for inclusion or exclusion:
Systematic review was conducted on articles that discussed the possible causes of the increase in pharmaceutical spending, trends in drug expenditure or costs related to pharmaceutical demand.
For the purpose of understanding the context and using the evidence to draw the conclusion of this systematic review, we only selected full text articles.
A systematic review will be conducted on articles that were published in English.
These articles were published from 2012 to 2018. They have been chosen because they provide evidence from current research that can be used to help understand the current economic challenges in pharmaceuticals.
Data collection has taken into account the characteristics of each study (e.g., study design, sample size and methodology)
Literature are selected based their evidence level.
From 35 articles, 4 were selected to meet the inclusion criteria.
The systematic review includes a 2 evidence-based systematic review with evidence levels I and 3 retrospective reviews with evidence levels VII.
Evidence on topic:
Globally, there has been an increase in demand for health services.
The technology and structure of the healthcare system has been altered by increased demand.
Changes in demographics, new diseases, and difference in how health care is provided are some of the major causes of increased demand for the service (Mousnad Shafie and Ibrahim, 2014).
Pharmaceuticals have been proven to be a key component in meeting the health care service demand.
It was found that 55% of the global health system trade has been contributed to by pharmaceuticals (Vogler & Zimmermann & Habl 2013).
In recent years, pharmaceutical expenditures have risen dramatically. This has led to rising healthcare costs.
Many countries are currently facing economic challenges in the pharmaceutical sector (Mousnad Shafie & Ibrahim 2014.
The long-term chains of the pharmaceutical industry include research and development of new drugs, government policies and regulations as well as other medication safety issues. There are also marketing and consumer behavior.
According to Schumpett et al. (2016), there are multiple factors that can influence pharmaceutical spending.
It was discovered that total prescriptions have increased 11.7%, prescription expenses have increased 10.7%, and that the expenditure for prescription drugs has increased from 11 to 13 percent. The overall cost of healthcare in hospitals and clinical settings has increased to 10 to 17% (Vogler. Zimmermann & Habl. 2013).
One factor that has contributed to the increase in pharmaceutical spending is the rising cost of certain drugs or medications (Schumock et. al., 2016,).
The changes in the prices of existing drugs were measured and evaluated over different periods. Also, trends were also measured.
According to the results, 8.4% of the rise in prices of current medicines contributed to the increase of pharmaceutical sector spending (Vogler & Zimmermann 2013, Habl).
In order to meet the growing demand for medical care, pressure has increased on the pharmaceutical sector.
To meet the growing health care needs of the population, there have been changes in the quantity and quality of drugs as well as drug therapy (Mousnad Shafie and Ibrahim, 2014).
It has been shown that drug prices rise with increased use of therapy and drug quantity.
Changes in the amount or quality of drugs and treatments have been identified as another possible factor for increased pharmaceutical expenses (Maniadakis (2016)
New diseases have increased the need for new drugs and medication.
It was found that spending on new drugs contributes to the economic difficulties in the pharmaceutical sector (Schumock, Zimmermann & Habl, 2016).
2.7% of total expenditure can be attributed to investments in new drugs (Vogler & Zimmermann & Habl 2013).
These factors also influence policy makers. The increased expenditure is now a key concern of health policymakers.
A rise in pharmaceutical expenditure also has an effect on the cost of health care settings (Aljunid& Ali Jadoo 2018).
Conclusion From the Evidence
There are multiple factors that contribute to an increase in pharmaceutical expenditures, as shown by the evidence.
There are many factors that contribute to an increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. These include increases in the price or quantity of medicines, changes made in drug therapies and investments made in the production of new drugs.
These factors not only increase pharmaceutical expenditures but also impact the overall health care cost. Additionally, policy makers have concerns about the economic conditions of the pharmaceutical industry.
Study Objective: The Evidence
The evidence should be used as the study objective.
To share information regarding possible factors that contribute to an increase of pharmaceutical expenditures.
Incorporate strategies to lower pharmaceutical expenditures.
By reducing your pharmaceutical spending, you can lower the hospital’s overall cost.
Encourage the policy maker o adopt policies that reflect the current trends and are more focused on lower drug expenditures.
This study has identified the key factors that contributed to the increase in pharmaceutical expenses. It is necessary to continue research to find effective ways to reduce these expenditures.
It would lower the overall cost of health care and make it more affordable for the general population.References:Aljunid, S., & Ali Jadoo, S. (2018).
Retrospective Study: Factors That Influence the Inpatient Pharmacy Cost at Tertiary Hospitals in Malaysia. INQUIRY: The Journal Of Health Care Organization, Provision, And Financing, 55, 004695801875548. doi: 10.1177/0046958018755483Maniadakis, N., Kourlaba, G., Zavali, M., Zampoulakis, D., & Mylonas, C. (2016).
Factors Affecting Pharmaceutical Spenditures: A Systematic Analysis.
Value in Health 19(7), A457.Mousnad, M. A., Shafie, A. A., & Ibrahim, M. I. (2014).
Systematic review of factors that influence pharmaceutical expenditures.
Health policy. 116(2-3). 137-146.Schumock, G. T., Li, E. C., Suda, K. J., Wiest, M. D., Stubbings, J., Matusiak, L. M., … & Vermeulen, L. C. (2016).
Prescription drug spending trends and projections: National trends for 2016.
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy.Vogler, S., Zimmermann, N., & Habl, C. (2013).
Understanding the components that make up pharmaceutical expenditure. Overview of European drug policies that impact expenditure in Europe.
GaBi J. 2, 178-87.