PY6301 Clinical Psychology Placement A


This module will cover one area of clinical relevance (Alcohol Addiction and Major depressive disorder. ADHD, Anorexia Nervosa. Schizophrenia).

Identifying the psychological needs for your chosen client (e.g.

Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
PY6301 Clinical Psychology Placement A
Just from $8/Page
Order Essay

On the basis of research, identify individuals who have anorexia.

Next, you are required to create a literature analysis critically examining the effectiveness / utility of the psychological interventions / treatments (minimum of 2) to address your client group’s needs.

Clearly identify the relevant client or population. Most importantly, identify the clients’ psychological needs.

This literature review will require that you:

a. Describe the scope of the review.

It is likely that you will critically review (at least) two treatments or interventions pertinent to your client (e.g.

BPT & Family Therapy

b. Briefly describe your search strategy to locate the research articles you wish to review. (e.g.

Search terms, databases used, key terms, years searched, etc.

c. Briefly describe the design of the literature search. – e.g.


If three different methodologies were used to assess the effectiveness CBT on Anorexia Nervosa, you can briefly describe them and say that you will compare their results.

d. To provide a critical appraisal of five primary (original research articles).

e. Your critical assessment must attempt to integrate the research articles. (e.g.


You shouldn’t just talk about each article one at a time in a ‘list’ style.

f. Give a brief summary and conclusion. Draw your arguments together in relation to the utility of the two psychologically-based interventions you have discussed.

We also need recommendations for future studies.

Answer to Question: PY6301 Clinical Psychology Placement A

Major Depressive Disorder

Major depressive disorder is also known simply as depression. This is a type mental disorder characterised by low mood for the past 2 weeks. It is typically associated with low selfesteem, low energy, loss of interest and low self-esteem.

It is the number one cause of suicide in adults, with 6% being affected each year.

Its symptoms are gradually increasing and its effects can be devastating not only for the individual but also their families as well.

NICE’s guideline allows healthcare professionals and other professionals access to this resource. This mental health condition can slowly progress into a chronic illness, if not treated properly (Snyder 2013).

The Psychological Needs of a Person with Depression

The patients receive a wide range of psychological and psychosocial support for depression to alleviate their symptoms.

Evidence suggests that long term depression can be treated with psychological therapies.

But, not all patients with depression respond to the same treatment. Therefore, healthcare professionals may offer different interventions to improve the treatment.

Researchers became more interested in understanding the psychological needs and treatment options for people suffering from depression over the last year.

Attachment theory is a psychological approach that helps to identify differences between individuals.

The psychologists who counsel clients with depression need to be aware of the causes. If these are identified, then the psychologist can help them by targeting the mediators and prescribing the medications that will relieve their depression (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health UK 2013.

There are many indicators of psychological distress like shame, anger anxiety, distress, depression and anxiety.

A strong relationship has been established between depression and avoidance, which is also linked to interpersonal difficulties, loneliness feelings, and lack empathy towards others.

The majority of these studies adopted a pathology based strategy, in which they investigated maladaptive process as mediators between need and depression.

This is because one of the reasons we seek advising to learn how to deal with dysfunction in our daily lives.

But, changing these unhelpful tendencies doesn’t guarantee people will be successful. There are strategies that may be versatile and work.

Perfection may not be the best option for people whose attachments aren’t responsive enough to their needs.

People might believe that others will admire them if they are flawless.

This implies that the use of maladaptive mechanisms is a result inability to meet fundamental mental requirements (Beesley et. al., 2015).

We found that attachment avoidance, shame and depression were partially mediated by basic psychological needs satisfaction.

Wei, 2015 found that attachment anxiety as well as attachment avoidance are negatively related with basic psychological need satisfaction.Critically examine the utility/effectiveness of the psychological interventions of Major Depressive Disorder

Journal article 1 — “Tailoring recommendations to implement treatment recommendations for elderly patients with depressive symptoms: a qualitative investigation”

Literature Review

This project was intended to assess the suitability of tailored interventions while simultaneously examining elective methods in tailoring.

Patients with depression older than 65 are at greater risk. In addition, the prospect of an endless path is even more dangerous.

The evidence shows that social workers can take longer to identify discouragement in older patients and start a satisfactory treatment (Aakhus et. al., 2015).Plan/Intervention

The survey included 13 guidelines on managing depression that were used in clinical practice.

It was helped by a reference group to organize six proposals which are now being implemented.

Depression among seniors is common. It affects 10-16% of older adults over 65.

Recognizing this unpredictable nature, the proposals focused on the need for an organized mix intercessions. These intercessions included pharmacotherapy. psychotherapy. self improvement techniques. social systems and coordination of care.

Only the treatment issues were chosen because of the way the project was organized.

Although there is no proof of antidepressants being effective in treating depression, there are numerous methodical reviews which show that antidepressants have a value when used with psychotherapy in the treatment of elderly patients with severe depression (Jager et. al., 2017).

Intervention 2 – “Advancing psychological therapy and evidence-based interventions in psychotherapy”Plan / Intervention

Psychological models of mental disorder guide research on the psychological and environmental variables that trigger and maintain mental disorders, and also how to reduce them.

This paper covers four topics (Goschke, 2014.)1.

Psychological models of mental disorder have advanced to be more transdiagnostic. This means that they are now more focused on psychopathology’s centre intellectual endophenotypes from an integrative subjective brain perspective, and not offering any clarifications about unitary mental problem.2.

Psychotherapy research has yet to have a structure that unites all the different models, viewpoints and approaches.3.

Children and adolescents need more powerful psychological interventions. To do this, we must develop new or potentially enhanced psychotherapeutic media.4.

Expanding psychotherapy research is necessary to receive large scale general wellbeing techniques, medications that can easily be connected to more patients in both a basic and practical manner.

Expanded research into the adequacy and arbitrators for Internet-based medicines, and emotional wellness instruments might be a promising path forward (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014).

These are the search strategies that were used to find this article

These keywords are used by different databases search tools, including MEDLINE, CINHAL and PUBMED.

Organisation of the literature search

The research paper 1 shows that the tailored interventions we created in a randomized trial are effective.

It has been determined which determinants are most important and the best interventions have been selected to address them in a process analysis.

There is little research that compares different methods of identifying the determinants of practice and tailoring implementation programs. More research is needed to improve these interventions and to determine how to best do so.

This includes the evaluation of strategies for prioritizing interventions in light of the large number of options that are available, as demonstrated by this study (Jager und al., 2014.).

The research paper 2 is a complete understanding of mental disorder and requires that we approach triggers and enable conditions, know their substrate and mechanism, identify their function, i.e.

Emmelkamp et. al. (2014). A theoretical model of disordered behavior, as well as the factors that sustain them.

Critical evaluation

Article 1: Emotional-Focused Therapy of Depression

The article includes a review of emotion focused therapy (EFT), as well as a proof.

EFT attempts to create an affectively adjusted, empathic connection with people in order to address and change maladaptive passionate patterns that are often attributed to depression.

It is possible to access flexible feelings through the restorative procedure to overcome maladaptive feelings.

Greenberg, 2017. This process of changing feelings with feeling is supported through the use of therapeutic techniques that assist in stimulating excitement of feeling (Greenberg).Article 2- Depression: Loss Of Reinforcers Or Loss Of Reinforcer Effectiveness – Republished Article

Many psychologists suggest that depression can be caused by the loss of support or discriminative stimulus.

A loss of support may be a result of a person’s loss of interest in their daily lives.

Depression could be caused when someone close to you loses interest in your daily life, and the support is removed (Costello 2016, 2016).

Article 3: The Genetics Of Major Depression

Major depression is the most recognized psychiatric issue. Furthermore, the U.S. has shown the greatest impact of all biomedical disorders on inability.

Here’s the proof of the hereditary role in infection susceptibility and the condition of molecular methods.

It is considered to be evidence of hereditary heterogeneity for the disorder, and the likelihood that subtypes are present that correspond to hereditarily similar conditions (Flint und Kendler (2014)

Article 4-Depression: A Major Problem in Public Health

This article discusses depression as a vital issue for general wellbeing.

We will be looking at the writing regarding the study of depression transmission, outcomes, or counteractive action.

Depression is a very common condition with long-term effects, especially for those living in poverty and those facing difficulties in their relationships.

It is a major cause of disability, leading to suicide as well as increased rates for physical problems.

Many cases aren’t known, and the treatment is frequently lacking (Paykel 2016).

Article 5- The Natural Course of Adolescent Major Deceit Disorder: Continuity to Young Adulthood

In this article, the severity and frequency of major depressive disorders in teens is measured by comparing moods of those aged 19-24 years with those who have had MDD or are currently suffering from depression.

This was done to assess personality disorders and psychopathology.

Synthesis of research articles

In the intervention 1, an interview was conducted among several stakeholder groups in order to determine the best way to implement the interventions to improve clinical practice.

A draft plan containing 55 inventions was created for each of six recommendations.

It can be seen that MDD is the most common psychiatric issue in America and has the greatest impact of all mental disorders.

The second intervention provides an evaluation of research across different domains. It identifies promising methods and major advances. It also points out gaps and issues that need to be addressed in future research.

A basic evaluation is also given elsewhere (Schumann and al., 2013). This was done by the ROAMER group “Biomedical research”.

Specialists from both work groups were chosen for their academic magnificence as well as their ability in the unique units that will allow them to comprehensively portray specific indication areas.

Depression is a prevalent problem, with long-term consequences, especially for women and those facing social difficulties.

It is the leading cause of death by suicide or increased rates of health problems.

Many psychologists suggest that depression happens when the support or spur for conduct is lost.

The loss of interest and support for depression in an individual is the cause of it (Wittchen Knappe & Schmann, 2014).


From both of these interventions, it is clear that there are not enough determinants to predict whether similar practices can be found in other settings.

It was possible and cost-effective to use this approach to develop a customized package of implementation interventions.

However, the second intervention describes that even though psychological treatments have been improved over the past decades, they are not yet up to the level necessary to effectively reduce mental disorders.

In order to make a better contribution to the reduction in mental disorders, psychotherapy research must shift its focus from individual clinical care to public health strategies and to treatments that can be implemented more quickly and economically.

In this field, there are four areas of research:

How to apply internet-based knowledge to routine mental health care.

The development of internet-based therapies

Technology and avatars used

Previous history of medication can reduce treatment failures

This information will help you learn more about the effects of psychological therapies and which therapy is best for you.

Refer toAakhus, E., Granlund, I., Oxman, A. D., & Flottorp, S. A. (2015).

An qualitative study that examined tailoring strategies to implement treatment recommendations for depression in older patients.

International journal for mental health systems, 9, 36.Beesley, V. L., Smithers, B. M., Khosrotehrani, K., Khatun, M., O’rourke, P., Hughes, M. C. B., & Brown, L. J. (2015).

Queensland, Australia. Supportive care needs, anxiety and depression among newly diagnosed patients suffering from localised invasivecutaneous melanoma. Psycho?Oncology, 24(7), 763-770.Costello, C. G. (2016). Depression: Loss of Reinforcers or Loss of Reinforcer Effectiveness?-Republished Article.

Behavior Therapy, 47(5) 595-599.Emmelkamp, P. M., David, D., Beckers, T., Muris, P., Cuijpers, P., Lutz, W., … & Berking, M. (2014).

Psychotherapy and evidence-based psychological interventions: Advancing psychotherapy.

International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research. 23(S1), 58–91.Flint, J., & Kendler, K. S. (2014).

The genetics of major depressive disorder. Neuron, 81(3), 484-503.Goschke T. (2014) Dysfunctions of decision-making and cognitive control as transdia-gnostic mechanisms of mental disorders:advances, gaps, and needs in current research.International Journal of Methods in PsychiatricResearch, 23(Suppl. 1), 41-57.Greenberg, L. S. (2017).

Emotion-focused therapy to treat depression.

Psychotherapies 1-12, Person-Centered and Experienced.Jager C, Freund T, Steinhauser J, Aakhus E, Flottorp S, Godycki-Cwirko M, et al.

Tailored implementation in chronic diseases (TICD), protocol for process evaluation of cluster randomized controlled trials. Trials. 2014;. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-87.Jager, C., Steinhauser, J., Freund, T., Kuse, S., Szecsenyi, J., & Wensing, M. (2017).

A tailor-made programme for patients with multimorbidities and polypharmacy in primary-care practices – process evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial.

Implementation Science (12(1)), 31.Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., Klein, D. N., & Seeley, J. R. (2013).

Natural course of adolescent depression: I. Continuity until young adulthood.

Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 38(1). 56-63.

National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health UK (2013).

Updated edition: Depression: Treatment and Management of Depression in Adults (updated).

British Psychological Society.Paykel, E. S. (2016).

Depression: A major problem for the public’s health.

Epidemiology & Psychiatric Studies, 15(1). pp. 4-10.Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014).

Positive psychology: An introduction.

In Flow and foundations positive psychology (pp. 279-298). Springer Netherlands.Snyder, H. R. (2013).

Major depressive disorder is associated w/ broad impairments on neuropsychological measures to executive function: A metaanalysis and review.Wei, M., Shaffer, P. A., Young, S. K., & Zakalik, R. A. (2015).

Loneliness, adult attachment, shame, depression and loneliness: The mediation function of basic psychological needs fulfillment.

Journal of Counseling Psychology. 52(4), 591.Wittchen, H. U., Knappe, S., & Schumann, G. (2014).

The ROAMER consensus document, ROAMER work package 5, introduces the psychological perspective on mental illness and mental disorder research.

International journal of methods and psychiatric research. 23(S1) 15-27.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *