RNSG 1261 Clinical Nursing II

Arterial Blood Gases
Normal Values

Partial pressure of oxygen is 75-100 mm Hg while that of carbon dioxide is 38-42 mm Hg; arterial blood pH is 7.35-7.45; oxygen saturation is 94%-100%; bicarbonate level is 22-29mEq/L.

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Abnormal Range

Higher or lower than the above-mentioned typical range is the abnormal range.

Meaning Of Low Value

Low oxygen level means not enough oxygen is received by the person; low carbon dioxide level and pH means blood is acidic.

Meaning Of High Value

A high level of oxygen causes oxygen toxicity and carbon dioxide causes electrolyte imbalance in the body; higher pH means blood is basic and bicarbonate level is high.


Diarrhoea, shortness of breath, headache, rapid heartbeat.


Oxygen therapy to be done if oxygen level falls and carbon dioxide level rises; sodium bicarbonate to be used to keep pH normal.

Disease Causing Low Value

Disease causing low arterial gas level are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (Quaderi and Hurst 2018) and Addison’s disease.

Disease/Medication Causing High Value

Medication to increase oxygen level is dexamethasone (Lester, Sahin and Pasyar 2020); high carbon dioxide level is caused by lung diseases and Cushing’s syndrome.

Normal Values

Triglyceride: <150 mg/dL; total cholesterol: <5.18 mmol/L; HDL: 60 mg/dL or above; LDL: <100 mg/dL. Abnormal Range Higher or lower than the above-mentioned typical range is the abnormal range. Meaning Of Low Value Low level of fat in blood and risk of haemorrhagic stroke and brain impairment. Meaning Of High Value High level of fat in blood and risk of developing heart disease (Rodríguez-Carrio et al, 2017). Symptoms Low lipid profile causes nervousness, agitation, confusion, change in mood and sleep patterns; high lipid profile has no symptoms, severe symptoms are stroke, heart attack or peripheral artery disease. Intervention Regular exercises, consuming balanced diet and food with omega-3 fatty acids, maintenance of healthy weight. Disease Causing Low Value Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, Abetalipoproteinemia, Anaemia (Al Sabbah 2020). Disease Causing High Value Chronic kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes. Gastro-Intestinal Tests Normal Values Albumin level: 34-54 g/L; alkaline phosphatase: 30-120 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 4-36 U/L; amylase: 40-140 U/L; aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 8-33 U/L; direct bilirubin: <5.1 micromol/L; gamma glutamyl transferase: 5-40 U/L; lipase: 10-140 U/L; total bilirubin: 1.71-20.5 micromol/L; total protein: 60-83 g/L. Abnormal Range Higher or lower than the above-mentioned typical range is the abnormal range. Meaning Of Low Value Low protein and albumin level means a person is not getting enough calories or protein in his/her diet; low alkaline phosphatase leads to zinc deficiency; low alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase lead to vitamin B6 deficiency; low gamma glutamyl transferase occurs when bile flow from liver is suppressed; low lipase level indicates damaged pancreas cells which makes it; low protein level indicates liver disease, malnutrition and kidney disease. Meaning Of High Value High albumin level indicates dehydration; high alkaline phosphatase indicates liver or bone diseases; high alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase and direct bilirubin indicates liver disease; high protein levels indicate infections. Symptoms Hunger, loss of mass of muscles, fatigue, weakness, bone brittleness, impaired immune function, sugar cravings, slow-healing injuries. Intervention Antibiotics to treat infection and consumption of protein-rich food. Disease Causing Low Value Liver disease, kwashiorkor (Benjamin and Lappin 2020.), muscle wasting. Disease Causing High Value Chronic inflammatory disorders. Hormones Normal Values 17 hydroxyprogesterone (female): 1 ng/mL; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): 2.2-13.3 pmol/L; estradiol: 2.0-5.5 ng/dL (male), 30-400 pg/mL (follicular female), 75-450 pg/mL (luteal female), 14.2-52.3 IU/L (menopausal female), 0-30 pg/mL (postmenopausal female); T3: 100-200 ng/dL; T4: 13-30 pmol/L; Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): 1.5-12.4mIU/mL (male), 1.4-9.9 IU/mL (female follicular phase), 6.2-17.2 IU/mL (ovulatory female), 25.8-134.8 IU/L (postmenopausal female); Growth hormone: 0.4-10 ng/mL (male), 1-14 ng/mL (female); Progesterone: <12 ng/mL; Prolactin: <25 ng/mL (female); Testosterone (male): 10-35 nmol/L; Thyroxine-binding globulin: 13-39microgram/dL; Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): 0.4-4 mIU/L; Total T4: 5-12 microgram/dL; Total T3: 60-180 ng/dL. Abnormal Range Higher or lower than the above-mentioned typical range is the abnormal range. Meaning Of Low Value Low levels of these hormones cause delayed puberty, slow sexual development and hinders body growth.            Meaning Of High Value High level of these hormones is caused by high percentage of body fat and high levels of stress and depression. Symptoms Irregular menstruation in females, delayed growth, delayed sexual development. Intervention Vitamin B and C consumption, increased consumption of zinc, control of stress level, maintaining healthy body weight. Disease Causing Low Value Turner’s syndrome, abnormal functioning of pituitary gland. Disease Causing High Value Ovarian cancer (Hariri and Rehman 2021), breast cancer, irregular menstruation. Tumour Markers Normal Values Alpha fetoprotein: 10-20 ng/mL; Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG): 0.2-0.8 IU/L; CA19.9: 0-37 U/mL; Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): 0-2.5 micro g/L; Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP): 0.13–0.63 U/L; Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): 0-2.5 microgram/L. Abnormal Range Higher or lower than the above-mentioned typical range is the abnormal range. Meaning Of Low Value No indication of tumour or cancer. Meaning Of High Value High alpha fetoprotein indicates liver tumours, high beta human chorionic gonadotropin indicates germ cell tumour; high CA19.9 indicates pancreatic cancer; high carcinoembryonic antigen indicates various types of cancer; high prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) indicates leukaemia, testicular cancer; Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) means prostrate cancer. Symptoms Fatigue, tiredness, vomiting, sweating, loss of appetite, fever. Intervention Chemotherapy (Chu and Sartorelli 2018), immunotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy. Processes Causing Low Value Regular exercise and undergoing treatment and therapies. Disease Causing High Value Cancer and tumour in various body parts. Miscellaneous Normal Values Alpha 1-antitrypsin: 20-48 micromol/dL; Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE): < 40 micrograms/L; C-reactive protein (CRP): <10 mg/L; D-dimer: <500 ng/mL; Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): 0-22 mm/hr (male), 0-29 mm/hr (female); Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH): 140-240 U/L; Lead: <10 microgram/dL; Rheumatoid factor (RF): 0-20 IU/mL. Abnormal Range Higher or lower than the above-mentioned typical range is the abnormal range. Meaning Of Low Value Low alpha 1-antitrypsin and ACE indicate lung and liver disease; low CRP indicates risk of heart disease; low ESR indicates blood disorder; low LDH indicates lower rate of sugar breakdown in cells. Meaning Of High Value  High alpha 1-antitrypsin and CRP indicate infection; High D-dimer indicates blood clotting problem; high ESR indicates inflammation; high LDH indicates tissue damage; high RF indicates an autoimmune disease. Symptoms Shortness of breath, coughing, chest pain, headache, fever, weight loss, anaemia. Intervention Regular exercises, usage of anti-inflammatory drugs, maintaining normal weight, maintaining healthy and hygienic lifestyle. Disease Causing Low Value Low ESR indicates sickle cell anaemia, polycythaemia Disease Causing High Value Infection like encephalitis, meningitis, anaemia, liver disease. References Al Sabbah, H., 2020. Prevalence of overweight/obesity, anaemia and their associations among female university students in Dubai, United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Nutritional Science, 9. Benjamin, O. and Lappin, S.L., 2020. Kwashiorkor. StatPearls [Internet]. Chu, E. and Sartorelli, A.C., 2018. Cancer chemotherapy. Lange’s Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, pp.948-976. Hariri, L. and Rehman, A., 2021. Estradiol. StatPearls [Internet]. Lester, M., Sahin, A. and Pasyar, A., 2020. The use of dexamethasone in the treatment of COVID-19. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 56, p.218. Quaderi, S.A. and Hurst, J.R., 2018. The unmet global burden of COPD. Global health, epidemiology and genomics, 3. Rodríguez-Carrio, J., Alperi-López, M., López, P., López-Mejías, R., Alonso-Castro, S., Abal, F., Ballina-García, F.J., González-Gay, M.Á. and Suárez, A., 2017. High triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis: A potential link among inflammation, oxidative status, and dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein. Journal of clinical lipidology, 11(4), pp.1043-1054.