SK299 Human Biology


Write about Human tissues.

Tissues that make up the stomach

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1) The diagram can be used to identify and explain the terms Cells.

2) Discuss and Explain – Some organs belong to multiple body systems, and their function depends upon the system to which it is attached.

2) Explain how temperature affects growth of bacteria

4) Explain and describe a common physiological property for bacteria such as respiration or toxin creation.

Answer to Question: SK299 Human Biology

1: Cells. Tissues. Organs. Systems.

Cells are the smallest unit for life. They can be described as an independent unit, consisting of a cell cell membrane, genetic material and cell wall (in plant only).

It is the core structural and functional unit of the human body.

Two types of cells are available:

Prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes are the two main types of cells.

The prokaryotic cell is a primitive cell, similar to bacteria. It consists of cell membrane and genetic material. Simple cell organelles are also included. These cells lack compartmentalization.

Comparatively, eukaryotic cell are more organised. They have complex cell orgenelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. The nuclear materials are also present within each compartment, and sometimes they have extra protective layers outside the cell membrane.

Eukaryotic cells are the basis of the human body (Baquero-Nombela (2012)

Each cell in a tissues usually works in cooperation to perform a particular physiological function within the human body.

A combination of two or more types tissues works together to form an organ. In contrast, multiple organs work together for a common purpose to form an organ system in the body.

The following example illustrates the process and inter-relationship between these organization levels.

Tissue is made of different types of cells that have a similar function.

There are generally four basic types: epithelial tissue (connective tissue), connective tissue (muscle tissue), and nervous tissue.

Epithelial tissue comprises thinly packed cells that cover surface of organs.

One example is the linings in your stomach. This is made up columnar epithelium and epithelial tissues. It acts as a barrier for fluid and infectious organisms (Sherwood (2015)).

Another type is muscle tissue.

One type of stomach tissue is smooth muscle tissue. It can be found within the walls and digestive tract. This helps in pushing food through the intestinal tract in an unvoluntary manner.

Connective tissue supports and connects another tissue type.

Blood is an example of a loose connective material that has a fluid matrix called plasma. This fluid supports the digestive system by carrying nutrients and oxygen from food into each cell.

Nervous tissue, made up of nerve cells, neurones, and nerve cells, is involved in sensing stimuli. This transmits signals to CNS that controls the digestion process (Pocock Richards & Richards (2013)).

Organs are made of different kinds of tissues. Each one serves a purpose. Heart pumps blood through the body, stomach helps with digestion, pancreas secretes digestive juices, and rectum assists in the excretory function.

Organ systems are composed of several organs that perform similar functions. They include digestive system. circulatory system. muscular system. nervous system. endocrine system. reproductive system.

Since pancreas as well as stomach work for digestion, they form the digestive system along with other organs (Stanfield (2012)).

2: Relationship between Organ Functions, and the Body System

Human bodies are composed of a variety of structures. They all work together to fulfill all physiological and biological functions.

Any organ that malfunctions affects another’s function.

The structure of the human body can be broken down into a variety of levels, starting with the simplest, which is the.

Cells to complex organ systems.

Each organ system in the human body is unique in its hierarchy.

Cell is the most basic unit in structural organization.

The pluripotent, multipotent stem cell is capable of differentiation in different kinds cells during development.

These cells can then be restricted to certain types of tissue or cells after differentiation.

These unipotent tissues are made up of particular types of cells.

These unipotent stem cells serve a similar purpose in a given organ system (Jenkins & Tortora 2011).

The digestive system, for example, is responsible for digesting food, providing nutrients, vitamins and minerals to body cells, and for carrying out physiological functions.

There are several parts to the digestive system: mouth, pharynx and esophagus; stomach, liver, pancreas; small and large intestines; and stomach, spleen.

These organs help facilitate digestion.

These organs are made from tissues and cells which aid digestion.

Each organ serves a specific function while also supporting the function of other nearby organs.

To illustrate, the digestive juice that is released from the stomach and pancreas helps facilitate the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones. (Park & Ahima, 2015).

3: Effect of temperature on the growth of Bacteria

Temperature is an important external influence on the growth of bacteria.

The temperature of the environment where they live will determine the nature and functionality of the bacterial pools.

The classification of bacteria is based on temperature.

There are three kinds of bacteria: mesophiles, thermophiles, and psychrophiles.

Thermophiles live at temperatures over 50oC but can also tolerate harsh conditions.

These organisms are found in hot springs or deep beneath the oceans due to thermal vents and hot rocks.

On the other side, psychrophiles may grow at as low as -5oC, with a maximum temperature between 10 and 20 oC.

Their growth is affected if they are exposed to high temperatures.

Mesophiles, however, grow at normal temperatures (i.e.


These are key human pathogens.

All normal flora that grows in the stomach or gut is mesophile. (Park & Ahima (2015)

Exceptionally H. Pylori can survive in stomach because of the acidity.

4: Physiological Properties of Bacteria

Bacteria can only be considered unicellular microorganisms. They perform all the biological functions necessary for survival in one cell.

Respiration can occur in both the presence and absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that require oxygen to breathe) is known as aerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that do not require oxygen to breathe) are called anaerobic.

Facultative anaerobes refer to bacteria which can survive without oxygen.

Glycolysis is where sugar molecules are reduced to produce pyruvate, and ATP.

These products also enter into kreb’s cycle which gives rise to ATPs. They are then used with the help proton gradient in electron transport chain.

To produce organic acid and carbon dioxide in the absence or presence of oxygen, pyruvate (Tille, 2013,) is used.

Reference ListBaquero, F., & Nombela, C. (2012).

The microbiome as an organ of the human body.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 18(s4). 2-4.Murray, P. R., Rosenthal, K. S., & Pfaller, M. A. (2015).

Medical microbiology. Elsevier Health Sciences.Pocock, G., Richards, C. D., & Richards, D. (2013).

Human physiology.

Oxford university presses.Sherwood, L. (2015).

Human physiology – From cells to systems. Cengage learning.Stanfield, C. L. (2012).

Principles and practice of human physiology.

Pearson Higher Ed.Tille, P. (2013).

Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology – E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.Jenkins, G., & Tortora, G. J. (2011).

Anatomy, physiology. Wiley-Blackwell.Park, H. K., & Ahima, R. S. (2015).

Physiology Of Leptin: Energy Homeostasis, Neuroendocrine Function and Metabolism. Metabolism, 64(1), 24-34.

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